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  • 1
    ISSN: 1600-0846
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background/aim: It is known that the properties of human skin vary locally. The purpose of this study was to investigate the properties of human volar forearms even further using advanced non-invasive techniques and numerical methods.Methods: The skin properties of human volar forearms were investigated using measurements of trans epidermal water loss and multifrequency electrical impedance. Eight sites on the forearms of 27 healthy volunteers were measured. The sites were oriented as squares, four sites on both left and right forearm, approximately 40–50 mm apart.Results: Analysis of variance showed significant differences for epidermal water loss (P 〈 0.01) and the skin impedance (P 〈 0.001) between the inner and outer sides of the arms. Additionally, parallel factor analysis of the full skin impedance spectra also showed that there are systematic differences between right and left arm (P 〈 0.01).Conclusion: It is crucial to design skin studies carefully in order to minimise the effects of the local skin properties of human skin.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1600-0846
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background/aims: Products containing detergents can damage the skin and give rise to irritant contact dermatitis. Therefore, attempts have been made to find less irritating detergents as well as substances decreasing undesired side-effects of detergents, and a novel approach is offered by betaine. The aim of the study has been to determine the irritating properties of some liquid soaps for personal hygiene and to map the effect of different concentrations of betaine using electrical impedance, trans-epidermal water loss and visual inspection.Methods: Twenty-eight healthy subjects were patch tested with different commercial soaps with and without betaine and sodium lauryl sulphate on both volar forearms for 24 h. A site with distilled water and an unoccluded area were used as references. Responses of the skin reactions were evaluated by visual inspection and by measuring trans-epidermal water loss and electrical impedance before application and 24 h after removal of the chambers.Results/conclusions: Significant skin reactions were found for all soaps tested but the soaps containing betaine were the least irritating. However, the skin irritation did not decrease with increasing concentrations of betaine in the tested range. On the whole the differences between the products were not large. The non-invasive methods used were more sensitive than visual assessment for evaluation of invisible or barely visible skin responses.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1600-0846
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background/aims: Purpose of this investigation was to assess benign pigmented cellular nevus (BEN), basal cell carcinoma (BCC), dermatofibroma (DER), dysplastic nevus (DYS), and seborrheic keratoses (SEB) using in vivo non- invasive electrical impedance technique.Methods: Electrical impedance was measured at 258 BEN, 34 BCC, 17 DER, 35 DYS, and 26 SEB lesions. Controls were measured at healthy skin close to the lesions. The impedance was measured between 1 kHz and 1 MHz at five depth settings. After the impedance measurements the lesions were histopathologically diagnosed. The impedance spectra were parameterized to four indices prior to the statistical analysis of the data.Results: There were significant differences between the lesions and their controls for BEN (P 〈 0.001), BCC (P 〈 0.001), DYS (P 〈 0.01), and SEB (P 〈 0.01).Conclusions: There are clear statistical differences between impedance of common lesions and control skin. With some further developments, the impedance technique can be useful as a diagnostic decision support tool for skin cancer assessment.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1600-0846
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background/purpose: Bio-electrical impedance spectra of skin cancer and other lesions can be assessed using both regular non-invasive probes and a novel type of microinvasive electrode system with a surface furnished with tiny spikes that penetrate stratum corneum. The aim of the study was to compare the accuracy of detection for various types of skin cancer using impedance spectra measured with these two different electrode systems in an objective way without optimising the power of discrimination.Methods: Impedance spectra of 99 benign nevi, 28 basal cell carcinomas (BCC), and 13 malignant melanomas (MM) were measured using the two electrode systems. Classification of the lesions was made using Fisher's linear discriminant, and the sensitivities and specificities of the techniques were estimated using cross-validation.Results: The best separation between nevi and BCC was achieved using the regular non-invasive probe (96% sensitivity and 86% specificity), whereas the best separation between nevi and MM was achieved using the microinvasive electrodes (92% sensitivity and 80% specificity).Conclusions: Our results indicate that the choice of electrode system is application dependent.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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