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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2648
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Timing of quality of life (QoL) assessments as a source of error in oncological trials Aim of the study. To produce an empirical estimate of the nature and magnitude of the error produced by incorrect timing quality of life (QoL) measurements in patients receiving chemotherapy. Design. In a multicentre trial, 283 patients were randomized to receive either docetaxel (T) or sequential methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil (MF). The QoL was assessed at baseline and before each treatment using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30). The study design was retrospective. Data were analysed using t-tests. Results. Erroneous timing affected the QoL findings in both treatment arms. At baseline, there were statistically significant differences in the MF group on the nausea/vomiting scale, with ill-timed assessment showing more symptoms, and in the T group on the physical functioning scale with ill-timed assessments indicating better QoL. The mean scores of correct vs. incorrect timings over the first 14 cycles showed statistically significant differences on several scales. In the MF group, ill-timed assessments indicated significantly worse physical functioning and global QoL, and significantly more of the following symptoms: fatigue, nausea/vomiting, insomnia, appetite loss, and constipation. In the T group, ill-timed assessment showed better physical functioning, less dyspnoea and more insomnia than correctly timed assessments. The reasons for erroneous timing were not always detectable retrospectively. However, in some cases the MF group, being in standard treatment, seemed to have followed a clinical routine not involving the active participation of the study nurse responsible, whereas patients in the experimental T group were more consistently taken care of by the study nurses. Conclusions. Incorrect timing of QoL assessments in oncological trials jeopardises both the reliability of the QoL findings within treatment and the validity of QoL outcome comparisons between treatments. This issue should be emphasized in the planning of both the study design and clinical routines.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: To test if freshly isolated tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) can induce apoptosis in a target cell, we have combined two previously described methods. Because TIL predominantly are T-lymphocytes. we have applied a redirected approach. When the target cells that express anti-human-CD3 monoclonal antibodies in their membranes bind to the T cell receptor-associated CD3-complex, signals are generated, which activate T cell effector mechanisms. This approach circumvents problems with MHC-restriction and allows for functional testing of all T cells, irrespective of their clonal specificity.In order to assay for induction of DNA fragmentation, we have labelled the target cell nuclei with [3H]thymidine. Upon harvesting fragmented DNA are washed away. Electrophoretic analysis of the fragmented DNA demonstrated the characteristic ‘ladder’ pattern, consistent with apoptosis.This rapid and simple assay monitors the capacity of different T cells to induce apoptosis in the target cell. It depends on intercellular interactions and clearly discriminates between different T cell subsets. With this assay we demonstrate the functional integrity of the cytotoxic effector arm of freshly isolated TIL.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-02-16
    Description: Purpose: T cells infiltrating follicular lymphoma (FL) tumors are considered dysfunctional, yet the optimal target for immune checkpoint blockade is unknown. Characterizing coinhibitory receptor expression patterns and signaling responses in FL T-cell subsets might reveal new therapeutic targets. Experimental Design: Surface expression of 9 coinhibitory receptors governing T-cell function was characterized in T-cell subsets from FL lymph node tumors and from healthy donor tonsils and peripheral blood samples, using high-dimensional flow cytometry. The results were integrated with T-cell receptor (TCR)-induced signaling and cytokine production. Expression of T-cell immunoglobulin and ITIM domain (TIGIT) ligands was detected by immunohistochemistry. Results: TIGIT was a frequently expressed coinhibitory receptor in FL, expressed by the majority of CD8 T effector memory cells, which commonly coexpressed exhaustion markers such as PD-1 and CD244. CD8 FL T cells demonstrated highly reduced TCR-induced phosphorylation (p) of ERK and reduced production of IFN, while TCR proximal signaling (p-CD3, p-SLP76) was not affected. The TIGIT ligands CD112 and CD155 were expressed by follicular dendritic cells in the tumor microenvironment. Dysfunctional TCR signaling correlated with TIGIT expression in FL CD8 T cells and could be fully restored upon in vitro culture. The costimulatory receptor CD226 was downregulated in TIGIT + compared with TIGIT – CD8 FL T cells, further skewing the balance toward immunosuppression. Conclusions: TIGIT blockade is a relevant strategy for improved immunotherapy in FL. A deeper understanding of the interplay between coinhibitory receptors and key T-cell signaling events can further assist in engineering immunotherapeutic regimens to improve clinical outcomes of cancer patients. Clin Cancer Res; 24(4); 870–81. ©2017 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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