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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-09-13
    Description: Established infections with the human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV, respectively) are thought to be permanent with even the most effective immune responses and antiretroviral therapies only able to control, but not clear, these infections. Whether the residual virus that maintains these infections is vulnerable to clearance is a question of central importance to the future management of millions of HIV-infected individuals. We recently reported that approximately 50% of rhesus macaques (RM; Macaca mulatta) vaccinated with SIV protein-expressing rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV/SIV) vectors manifest durable, aviraemic control of infection with the highly pathogenic strain SIVmac239 (ref. 5). Here we show that regardless of the route of challenge, RhCMV/SIV vector-elicited immune responses control SIVmac239 after demonstrable lymphatic and haematogenous viral dissemination, and that replication-competent SIV persists in several sites for weeks to months. Over time, however, protected RM lost signs of SIV infection, showing a consistent lack of measurable plasma- or tissue-associated virus using ultrasensitive assays, and a loss of T-cell reactivity to SIV determinants not in the vaccine. Extensive ultrasensitive quantitative PCR and quantitative PCR with reverse transcription analyses of tissues from RhCMV/SIV vector-protected RM necropsied 69-172 weeks after challenge did not detect SIV RNA or DNA sequences above background levels, and replication-competent SIV was not detected in these RM by extensive co-culture analysis of tissues or by adoptive transfer of 60 million haematolymphoid cells to naive RM. These data provide compelling evidence for progressive clearance of a pathogenic lentiviral infection, and suggest that some lentiviral reservoirs may be susceptible to the continuous effector memory T-cell-mediated immune surveillance elicited and maintained by cytomegalovirus vectors.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3849456/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3849456/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hansen, Scott G -- Piatak, Michael Jr -- Ventura, Abigail B -- Hughes, Colette M -- Gilbride, Roxanne M -- Ford, Julia C -- Oswald, Kelli -- Shoemaker, Rebecca -- Li, Yuan -- Lewis, Matthew S -- Gilliam, Awbrey N -- Xu, Guangwu -- Whizin, Nathan -- Burwitz, Benjamin J -- Planer, Shannon L -- Turner, John M -- Legasse, Alfred W -- Axthelm, Michael K -- Nelson, Jay A -- Fruh, Klaus -- Sacha, Jonah B -- Estes, Jacob D -- Keele, Brandon F -- Edlefsen, Paul T -- Lifson, Jeffrey D -- Picker, Louis J -- HHSN261200800001E/PHS HHS/ -- P01 AI094417/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P51OD011092/OD/NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI060392/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 DE021291/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI054292/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI095985/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI096109/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U24 OD010850/OD/NIH HHS/ -- U42 OD010426/OD/NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Oct 3;502(7469):100-4. doi: 10.1038/nature12519. Epub 2013 Sep 11.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute and Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Beaverton, Oregon 97006, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24025770" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cytomegalovirus/genetics/immunology ; Female ; Macaca mulatta ; Male ; Molecular Sequence Data ; SAIDS Vaccines/*immunology ; Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/*prevention & control/virology ; Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/*immunology ; Time Factors ; Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology ; Viral Load ; Virus Replication/physiology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-05-13
    Description: The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-causing lentiviruses human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) effectively evade host immunity and, once established, infections with these viruses are only rarely controlled by immunological mechanisms. However, the initial establishment of infection in the first few days after mucosal exposure, before viral dissemination and massive replication, may be more vulnerable to immune control. Here we report that SIV vaccines that include rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV) vectors establish indefinitely persistent, high-frequency, SIV-specific effector memory T-cell (T(EM)) responses at potential sites of SIV replication in rhesus macaques and stringently control highly pathogenic SIV(MAC239) infection early after mucosal challenge. Thirteen of twenty-four rhesus macaques receiving either RhCMV vectors alone or RhCMV vectors followed by adenovirus 5 (Ad5) vectors (versus 0 of 9 DNA/Ad5-vaccinated rhesus macaques) manifested early complete control of SIV (undetectable plasma virus), and in twelve of these thirteen animals we observed long-term (〉/=1 year) protection. This was characterized by: occasional blips of plasma viraemia that ultimately waned; predominantly undetectable cell-associated viral load in blood and lymph node mononuclear cells; no depletion of effector-site CD4(+) memory T cells; no induction or boosting of SIV Env-specific antibodies; and induction and then loss of T-cell responses to an SIV protein (Vif) not included in the RhCMV vectors. Protection correlated with the magnitude of the peak SIV-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses in the vaccine phase, and occurred without anamnestic T-cell responses. Remarkably, long-term RhCMV vector-associated SIV control was insensitive to either CD8(+) or CD4(+) lymphocyte depletion and, at necropsy, cell-associated SIV was only occasionally measurable at the limit of detection with ultrasensitive assays, observations that indicate the possibility of eventual viral clearance. Thus, persistent vectors such as CMV and their associated T(EM) responses might significantly contribute to an efficacious HIV/AIDS vaccine.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3102768/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3102768/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hansen, Scott G -- Ford, Julia C -- Lewis, Matthew S -- Ventura, Abigail B -- Hughes, Colette M -- Coyne-Johnson, Lia -- Whizin, Nathan -- Oswald, Kelli -- Shoemaker, Rebecca -- Swanson, Tonya -- Legasse, Alfred W -- Chiuchiolo, Maria J -- Parks, Christopher L -- Axthelm, Michael K -- Nelson, Jay A -- Jarvis, Michael A -- Piatak, Michael Jr -- Lifson, Jeffrey D -- Picker, Louis J -- HHSN261200800001E/PHS HHS/ -- HHSN272200900037C/PHS HHS/ -- P51 RR00163/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI060392/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI060392-05/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R24 RR016001/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- R56 AI060392/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R56 AI060392-06/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U24 OD010850/OD/NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 May 26;473(7348):523-7. doi: 10.1038/nature10003. Epub 2011 May 11.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Department of Molecular Microbiology, Oregon Health & Science University, Beaverton, Oregon 97006, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21562493" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: AIDS Vaccines/immunology ; Animals ; CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology ; CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology ; Cytomegalovirus/genetics ; DNA, Viral/analysis ; Genetic Vectors/genetics ; Immunity, Mucosal/immunology ; Immunologic Memory/*immunology ; Macaca mulatta/blood/immunology/virology ; Male ; RNA, Viral/analysis ; SAIDS Vaccines/genetics/*immunology ; Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/blood/*immunology/*prevention & ; control/virology ; Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/growth & development/*immunology/isolation & ; purification/*pathogenicity ; T-Lymphocytes/*immunology ; Time Factors ; Vaccines, DNA/genetics/immunology ; Viral Load ; Virus Replication
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-01-23
    Description: Major histocompatibility complex E (MHC-E) is a highly conserved, ubiquitously expressed, nonclassical MHC class Ib molecule with limited polymorphism that is primarily involved in the regulation of natural killer (NK) cells. We found that vaccinating rhesus macaques with rhesus cytomegalovirus vectors in which genes Rh157.5 and Rh157.4 are deleted results in MHC-E-restricted presentation of highly varied peptide epitopes to CD8alphabeta(+) T cells, at ~4 distinct epitopes per 100 amino acids in all tested antigens. Computational structural analysis revealed that MHC-E provides heterogeneous chemical environments for diverse side-chain interactions within a stable, open binding groove. Because MHC-E is up-regulated to evade NK cell activity in cells infected with HIV, simian immunodeficiency virus, and other persistent viruses, MHC-E-restricted CD8(+) T cell responses have the potential to exploit pathogen immune-evasion adaptations, a capability that might endow these unconventional responses with superior efficacy.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4769032/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4769032/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hansen, Scott G -- Wu, Helen L -- Burwitz, Benjamin J -- Hughes, Colette M -- Hammond, Katherine B -- Ventura, Abigail B -- Reed, Jason S -- Gilbride, Roxanne M -- Ainslie, Emily -- Morrow, David W -- Ford, Julia C -- Selseth, Andrea N -- Pathak, Reesab -- Malouli, Daniel -- Legasse, Alfred W -- Axthelm, Michael K -- Nelson, Jay A -- Gillespie, Geraldine M -- Walters, Lucy C -- Brackenridge, Simon -- Sharpe, Hannah R -- Lopez, Cesar A -- Fruh, Klaus -- Korber, Bette T -- McMichael, Andrew J -- Gnanakaran, S -- Sacha, Jonah B -- Picker, Louis J -- HHSN272201100013C/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- HHSN272201100013C/PHS HHS/ -- P01 AI094417/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P01-AI094417/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P50-GM065794/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P51 OD011092/OD/NIH HHS/ -- P51-OD011092/OD/NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI059457/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI095113/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI117802/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 DE021291/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/ -- R01-AI059457/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01-AI095113/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01-AI117802/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01-DE021291/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI054292/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R37-AI054292/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U24 OD010850/OD/NIH HHS/ -- U24-OD010850/OD/NIH HHS/ -- UM1 AI100645/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- UM1-AI100645-01/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 12;351(6274):714-20. doi: 10.1126/science.aac9475. Epub 2016 Jan 21.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute and Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Beaverton, OR 97006, USA. ; Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX37FZ, UK. ; Theoretical Biology and Biophysics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA. ; Theoretical Biology and Biophysics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA. The New Mexico Consortium, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26797147" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antigen Presentation ; Antigenic Variation ; CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/*immunology ; Cytomegalovirus/genetics/*immunology ; Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/chemistry/*immunology ; Genetic Vectors/genetics/immunology ; Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/chemistry/*immunology ; Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology ; Immune Evasion ; Killer Cells, Natural/immunology ; Macaca mulatta ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/*immunology ; Vaccination
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-05-25
    Description: CD8(+) T cell responses focus on a small fraction of pathogen- or vaccine-encoded peptides, and for some pathogens, these restricted recognition hierarchies limit the effectiveness of antipathogen immunity. We found that simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) protein-expressing rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV) vectors elicit SIV-specific CD8(+) T cells that recognize unusual, diverse, and highly promiscuous epitopes, including dominant responses to epitopes restricted by class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. Induction of canonical SIV epitope-specific CD8(+) T cell responses is suppressed by the RhCMV-encoded Rh189 gene (corresponding to human CMV US11), and the promiscuous MHC class I- and class II-restricted CD8(+) T cell responses occur only in the absence of the Rh157.5, Rh157.4, and Rh157.6 (human CMV UL128, UL130, and UL131) genes. Thus, CMV vectors can be genetically programmed to achieve distinct patterns of CD8(+) T cell epitope recognition.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3816976/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3816976/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hansen, Scott G -- Sacha, Jonah B -- Hughes, Colette M -- Ford, Julia C -- Burwitz, Benjamin J -- Scholz, Isabel -- Gilbride, Roxanne M -- Lewis, Matthew S -- Gilliam, Awbrey N -- Ventura, Abigail B -- Malouli, Daniel -- Xu, Guangwu -- Richards, Rebecca -- Whizin, Nathan -- Reed, Jason S -- Hammond, Katherine B -- Fischer, Miranda -- Turner, John M -- Legasse, Alfred W -- Axthelm, Michael K -- Edlefsen, Paul T -- Nelson, Jay A -- Lifson, Jeffrey D -- Fruh, Klaus -- Picker, Louis J -- P01 AI094417/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P51 OD 011092/OD/NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI059457/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI060392/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U24 OD010850/OD/NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 May 24;340(6135):1237874. doi: 10.1126/science.1237874.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute and Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Beaverton, OR 97006, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23704576" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/*immunology ; Cytokines/immunology ; Cytomegalovirus/genetics/*immunology ; Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/*immunology ; Female ; Genetic Vectors/genetics/*immunology ; Histocompatibility Antigens Class II/immunology ; Humans ; Macaca mulatta ; Male ; Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics ; SAIDS Vaccines/administration & dosage/*immunology ; Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-08-07
    Description: Early antiretroviral therapy limits SIV reservoir establishment to delay or prevent post-treatment viral rebound Early antiretroviral therapy limits SIV reservoir establishment to delay or prevent post-treatment viral rebound, Published online: 06 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0130-7 Early and prolonged administration of antiretroviral therapy to SIV-infected and post-exposure-vaccinated rhesus macaques was associated with absence or delay of detectable virus after therapy interruption.
    Print ISSN: 1078-8956
    Electronic ISSN: 1546-170X
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-01-16
    Description: Prevention of tuberculosis in rhesus macaques by a cytomegalovirus-based vaccine Prevention of tuberculosis in rhesus macaques by a cytomegalovirus-based vaccine, Published online: 15 January 2018; doi:10.1038/nm.4473 Complete vaccine-mediated immune control of highly pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis is possible if immune effector responses can intercept the infection at its earliest stages.
    Print ISSN: 1078-8956
    Electronic ISSN: 1546-170X
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 7
    Keywords: IN-VIVO ; PROTEINS ; DNA ; DYNAMICS ; ORGANIZATION ; MEMBRANE-BINDING ; DIVISION ; SEPARATE CELL HALVES ; BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME ; E. COLI
    Abstract: The mechanisms underlying chromosome segregation in prokaryotes remain a subject of debate and no unifying view has yet emerged. Given that the initial disentanglement of duplicated chromosomes could be achieved by purely entropic forces, even the requirement of an active prokaryotic segregation machinery has been questioned. Using computer simulations, we show that entropic forces alone are not sufficient to achieve and maintain full separation of chromosomes. This is, however, possible by assuming repeated binding of chromosomes along a gradient of membrane-associated tethering sites toward the poles. We propose that, in Escherichia coli, such a gradient of membrane tethering sites may be provided by the oscillatory Min system, otherwise known for its role in selecting the cell division site. Consistent with this hypothesis, we demonstrate that MinD binds to DNA and tethers it to the membrane in an ATP-dependent manner. Taken together, our combined theoretical and experimental results suggest the existence of a novel mechanism of chromosome segregation based on the Min system, further highlighting the importance of active segregation of chromosomes in prokaryotic cell biology.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24022004
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  • 8
  • 9
    Keywords: GENE ; SEQUENCE ; ESCHERICHIA-COLI ; BIOSYNTHESIS ; bacterial ; POLYMERASE EXTENSION CLONING ; 4'-PHOSPHOPANTETHEINYL TRANSFERASE ; PHOTORHABDUS-LUMINESCENS ; ANTIBIOTIC PRODUCTION ; ADENYLATION DOMAINS
    Abstract: Non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are enzymes that catalyze ribosome-independent production of small peptides, most of which are bioactive. NRPSs act as peptide assembly lines where individual, often interconnected modules each incorporate a specific amino acid into the nascent chain. The modules themselves consist of several domains that function in the activation, modification and condensation of the substrate. NRPSs are evidently modular, yet experimental proof of the ability to engineer desired permutations of domains and modules is still sought. Here, we use a synthetic-biology approach to create a small library of engineered NRPSs, in which the domain responsible for carrying the activated amino acid (T domain) is exchanged with natural or synthetic T domains. As a model system, we employ the single-module NRPS IndC from Photorhabdus luminescens that produces the blue pigment indigoidine. As chassis we use Escherichia coli. We demonstrate that heterologous T domain exchange is possible, even for T domains derived from different organisms. Interestingly, substitution of the native T domain with a synthetic one enhanced indigoidine production. Moreover, we show that selection of appropriate inter-domain linker regions is critical for functionality. Taken together, our results extend the engineering avenues for NRPSs, as they point out the possibility of combining domain sequences coming from different pathways, organisms or from conservation criteria. Moreover, our data suggest that NRPSs can be rationally engineered to control the level of production of the corresponding peptides. This could have important implications for industrial and medical applications.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24457530
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  • 10
    Keywords: SYSTEM ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; DOMAIN ; BIOLOGY ; SEQUENCE ; YEAST ; p53
    Abstract: The function of many eukaryotic proteins is regulated by highly dynamic changes in their nucleocytoplasmic distribution. The ability to precisely and reversibly control nuclear translocation would, therefore, allow dissecting and engineering cellular networks. Here we develop a genetically encoded, light-inducible nuclear localization signal (LINuS) based on the LOV2 domain of Avena sativa phototropin 1. LINuS is a small, versatile tag, customizable for different proteins and cell types. LINuS-mediated nuclear import is fast and reversible, and can be tuned at different levels, for instance, by introducing mutations that alter AsLOV2 domain photo-caging properties or by selecting nuclear localization signals (NLSs) of various strengths. We demonstrate the utility of LINuS in mammalian cells by controlling gene expression and entry into mitosis with blue light.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25019686
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