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  • 1
    Keywords: brain ; RECEPTOR ; APOPTOSIS ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; SURVIVAL ; CELL ; Germany ; PATHWAY ; NETWORKS ; SYSTEM ; DEATH ; PROTEIN ; DIFFERENTIATION ; MICE ; ACTIVATION ; REDUCTION ; INDUCTION ; BIOLOGY ; SIGNAL ; MEMORY ; STIMULATION ; DEFICITS ; NERVOUS-SYSTEM ; REPAIR ; REGION ; SIGNALING PATHWAY ; STEM-CELLS ; CENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEM ; INJURY ; signaling ; ADULT ; NEURONS ; TRANSLATION ; IMPAIRMENT ; TECHNOLOGY ; SUBVENTRICULAR ZONE ; USA ; regeneration ; REPLACEMENT ; STEM-CELL ; PROGENITORS ; FAS-INDUCED APOPTOSIS ; death-receptor ; HIPPOCAMPAL NEUROGENESIS
    Abstract: Adult neurogenesis persists in the subventricular zone and the dentate gyrus and can be induced upon central nervous system injury. However, the final contribution of newborn neurons to neuronal networks is limited. Here we show that in neural stem cells, stimulation of the "death receptor" CD95 does not trigger apoptosis but unexpectedly leads to increased stem cell survival and neuronal specification. These effects are mediated via activation of the Src/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, ultimately leading to a global increase in protein translation. Induction of neurogenesis by CD95 was further confirmed in the ischemic CA1 region, in the naive dentate gyrus, and after forced expression of CD95L in the adult subventricular zone. Lack of hippocampal CD95 resulted in a reduction in neurogenesis and working memory deficits. Following global ischemia, CD95-mediated brain repair rescued behavioral impairment. Thus, we identify the CD95/CD95L system as an instructive signal for ongoing and injury-induced neurogenesis
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19664992
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
    Journal of neurochemistry 94 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0031-9201
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0009-9120
    Keywords: alanine aminotransferase ; albumin ; alkaline phosphatase ; amylase ; aspartate aminotransferase ; cholinesterase ; creatine kinase ; enzyme release ; exercise ; hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase ; lactate dehydrogenase ; marathon ; serum
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0009-9120
    Keywords: alanine aminotransferase ; albumin ; alkaline phosphatase ; amylase ; aspartate aminotransferase ; cholinesterase ; creatine kinase ; enzyme release ; exercise ; hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase ; lactate dehydrogenase ; marathon ; serum
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-09-03
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Brustle, Oliver -- England -- Nature. 2013 Sep 19;501(7467):319-20. doi: 10.1038/nature12552. Epub 2013 Aug 28.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23995687" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Brain/*growth & development/*pathology ; Humans ; Microcephaly/*pathology ; *Models, Biological ; Organoids/*cytology/*growth & development ; Tissue Culture Techniques/*methods
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2012-07-06
    Description: Mutations in the IDH1 and IDH2 genes encoding isocitrate dehydrogenases are frequently found in human glioblastomas and cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukaemias (AML). These alterations are gain-of-function mutations in that they drive the synthesis of the 'oncometabolite' R-2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG). It remains unclear how IDH1 and IDH2 mutations modify myeloid cell development and promote leukaemogenesis. Here we report the characterization of conditional knock-in (KI) mice in which the most common IDH1 mutation, IDH1(R132H), is inserted into the endogenous murine Idh1 locus and is expressed in all haematopoietic cells (Vav-KI mice) or specifically in cells of the myeloid lineage (LysM-KI mice). These mutants show increased numbers of early haematopoietic progenitors and develop splenomegaly and anaemia with extramedullary haematopoiesis, suggesting a dysfunctional bone marrow niche. Furthermore, LysM-KI cells have hypermethylated histones and changes to DNA methylation similar to those observed in human IDH1- or IDH2-mutant AML. To our knowledge, our study is the first to describe the generation and characterization of conditional IDH1(R132H)-KI mice, and also the first report to demonstrate the induction of a leukaemic DNA methylation signature in a mouse model. Our report thus sheds light on the mechanistic links between IDH1 mutation and human AML.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4005896/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4005896/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sasaki, Masato -- Knobbe, Christiane B -- Munger, Joshua C -- Lind, Evan F -- Brenner, Dirk -- Brustle, Anne -- Harris, Isaac S -- Holmes, Roxanne -- Wakeham, Andrew -- Haight, Jillian -- You-Ten, Annick -- Li, Wanda Y -- Schalm, Stefanie -- Su, Shinsan M -- Virtanen, Carl -- Reifenberger, Guido -- Ohashi, Pamela S -- Barber, Dwayne L -- Figueroa, Maria E -- Melnick, Ari -- Zuniga-Pflucker, Juan-Carlos -- Mak, Tak W -- R01 AI081773/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- England -- Nature. 2012 Aug 30;488(7413):656-9. doi: 10.1038/nature11323.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉The Campbell Family Institute for Breast Cancer Research, Ontario Cancer Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C1, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22763442" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging ; Animals ; Bone Marrow/pathology ; Cell Lineage ; CpG Islands/genetics ; DNA Methylation ; Disease Models, Animal ; Epigenesis, Genetic/*genetics ; Female ; Gene Knock-In Techniques ; Glioma/pathology ; Hematopoiesis ; Hematopoietic Stem Cells/*cytology/metabolism ; Histones/metabolism ; Humans ; Isocitrate Dehydrogenase/*genetics/*metabolism ; Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics ; Male ; Mice ; Mutant Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Mutation/*genetics ; Myeloid Cells/cytology/metabolism ; Spleen/pathology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-03-04
    Description: The mechanisms underlying the low efficiency of reprogramming somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are poorly understood. There is a clear need to study whether the reprogramming process itself compromises genomic integrity and, through this, the efficiency of iPS cell establishment. Using a high-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism array, we compared copy number variations (CNVs) of different passages of human iPS cells with their fibroblast cell origins and with human embryonic stem (ES) cells. Here we show that significantly more CNVs are present in early-passage human iPS cells than intermediate passage human iPS cells, fibroblasts or human ES cells. Most CNVs are formed de novo and generate genetic mosaicism in early-passage human iPS cells. Most of these novel CNVs rendered the affected cells at a selective disadvantage. Remarkably, expansion of human iPS cells in culture selects rapidly against mutated cells, driving the lines towards a genetic state resembling human ES cells.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hussein, Samer M -- Batada, Nizar N -- Vuoristo, Sanna -- Ching, Reagan W -- Autio, Reija -- Narva, Elisa -- Ng, Siemon -- Sourour, Michel -- Hamalainen, Riikka -- Olsson, Cia -- Lundin, Karolina -- Mikkola, Milla -- Trokovic, Ras -- Peitz, Michael -- Brustle, Oliver -- Bazett-Jones, David P -- Alitalo, Kari -- Lahesmaa, Riitta -- Nagy, Andras -- Otonkoski, Timo -- England -- Nature. 2011 Mar 3;471(7336):58-62. doi: 10.1038/nature09871.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario M5T 3H7, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21368824" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cell Line ; Cellular Reprogramming/*genetics ; Chromosome Fragile Sites/genetics ; DNA Copy Number Variations/*genetics ; Embryonic Stem Cells/cytology/metabolism ; Fibroblasts/cytology/metabolism ; Haplotypes/genetics ; Humans ; In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence ; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology/*metabolism/pathology ; Mosaicism ; Mutagenesis/genetics ; Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; *Selection, Genetic/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-11-25
    Description: Machado-Joseph disease (MJD; also called spinocerebellar ataxia type 3) is a dominantly inherited late-onset neurodegenerative disorder caused by expansion of polyglutamine (polyQ)-encoding CAG repeats in the MJD1 gene (also known as ATXN3). Proteolytic liberation of highly aggregation-prone polyQ fragments from the protective sequence of the MJD1 gene product ataxin 3 (ATXN3) has been proposed to trigger the formation of ATXN3-containing aggregates, the neuropathological hallmark of MJD. ATXN3 fragments are detected in brain tissue of MJD patients and transgenic mice expressing mutant human ATXN3(Q71), and their amount increases with disease severity, supporting a relationship between ATXN3 processing and disease progression. The formation of early aggregation intermediates is thought to have a critical role in disease initiation, but the precise pathogenic mechanism operating in MJD has remained elusive. Here we show that L-glutamate-induced excitation of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons initiates Ca(2+)-dependent proteolysis of ATXN3 followed by the formation of SDS-insoluble aggregates. This phenotype could be abolished by calpain inhibition, confirming a key role of this protease in ATXN3 aggregation. Aggregate formation was further dependent on functional Na(+) and K(+) channels as well as ionotropic and voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels, and was not observed in iPSCs, fibroblasts or glia, thereby providing an explanation for the neuron-specific phenotype of this disease. Our data illustrate that iPSCs enable the study of aberrant protein processing associated with late-onset neurodegenerative disorders in patient-specific neurons.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Koch, Philipp -- Breuer, Peter -- Peitz, Michael -- Jungverdorben, Johannes -- Kesavan, Jaideep -- Poppe, Daniel -- Doerr, Jonas -- Ladewig, Julia -- Mertens, Jerome -- Tuting, Thomas -- Hoffmann, Per -- Klockgether, Thomas -- Evert, Bernd O -- Wullner, Ullrich -- Brustle, Oliver -- England -- Nature. 2011 Nov 23;480(7378):543-6. doi: 10.1038/nature10671.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Reconstructive Neurobiology, Life and Brain Center, University of Bonn and Hertie Foundation, 53127 Bonn, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22113611" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Ataxin-3 ; Calcium/metabolism ; Calpain/metabolism ; Cells, Cultured ; Excitatory Amino Acids/pharmacology ; Glutamic Acid/pharmacology ; Humans ; Machado-Joseph Disease/*pathology ; Nerve Tissue Proteins/*metabolism ; Neurons/drug effects/*metabolism ; Nuclear Proteins/*metabolism ; Repressor Proteins/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2015-03-15
    Description: After central nervous system (CNS) injury, inhibitory factors in the lesion scar and poor axon growth potential prevent axon regeneration. Microtubule stabilization reduces scarring and promotes axon growth. However, the cellular mechanisms of this dual effect remain unclear. Here, delayed systemic administration of a blood-brain barrier-permeable microtubule-stabilizing drug, epothilone B (epoB), decreased scarring after rodent spinal cord injury (SCI) by abrogating polarization and directed migration of scar-forming fibroblasts. Conversely, epothilone B reactivated neuronal polarization by inducing concerted microtubule polymerization into the axon tip, which propelled axon growth through an inhibitory environment. Together, these drug-elicited effects promoted axon regeneration and improved motor function after SCI. With recent clinical approval, epothilones hold promise for clinical use after CNS injury.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4445125/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4445125/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ruschel, Jorg -- Hellal, Farida -- Flynn, Kevin C -- Dupraz, Sebastian -- Elliott, David A -- Tedeschi, Andrea -- Bates, Margaret -- Sliwinski, Christopher -- Brook, Gary -- Dobrindt, Kristina -- Peitz, Michael -- Brustle, Oliver -- Norenberg, Michael D -- Blesch, Armin -- Weidner, Norbert -- Bunge, Mary Bartlett -- Bixby, John L -- Bradke, Frank -- R01 HD057632/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS059866/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Apr 17;348(6232):347-52. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa2958. Epub 2015 Mar 12.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Axonal Growth and Regeneration, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Ludwig-Erhard-Allee 2, 53175 Bonn, Germany. ; The Miami Project to Cure Paralysis, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 1095 Northwest 14th Terrace, Miami, FL33136, USA. ; Spinal Cord Injury Center, Heidelberg University Hospital, Schlierbacher Landstr. 200A, 69118 Heidelberg, Germany. ; Institute for Neuropathology, RWTH Aachen University, Steinbergweg 20, 52074, Aachen, Germany. Julich-Aachen Research Alliance-Translational Brain Medicine. ; Institute of Reconstructive Neurobiology, Life&Brain Center, University of Bonn and Hertie Foundation, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn, Germany. ; Departments of Pathology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33101, USA. ; Axonal Growth and Regeneration, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Ludwig-Erhard-Allee 2, 53175 Bonn, Germany. frank.bradke@dzne.de.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25765066" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Axons/*drug effects/physiology ; Cell Movement/drug effects ; Cell Polarity/drug effects ; Cicatrix/pathology/*prevention & control ; Epothilones/*administration & dosage ; Fibroblasts/drug effects/pathology ; Humans ; Meninges/drug effects/pathology ; Motor Activity/drug effects ; Nerve Regeneration/*drug effects ; Neurons/drug effects/pathology ; Rats ; Spinal Cord Injuries/*drug therapy/pathology/physiopathology ; Tubulin Modulators/*administration & dosage
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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