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  • 1
    ISSN: 1433-0350
    Keywords: Tuberculous encephalopathy ; Myeloradiculopathy ; Neurotuberculosis ; Allergic encephalomyelitis ; Cell-mediated immunity ; Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The pathology and pathogenesis of tuberculous encephalopathy are reviewed. They confirm the findings in a smaller series previously published. The main features were: (1) diffuse brain edema and myelin pallor in the majority of specimens; (2) microvascular distension or necrosis with perivascular macrophage reaction and greater demyelination; (3) focal glial nodules in the white matter; (4) less frequently, hemorrhagic lesions in the presence of mild-to-moderate tuberculous meningitis (TM), but in the virtual absence of the commoner brain-damaging mechanisms. Focal demyelinating lesions in the nerve roots are now added to the above pathology in the brain in some of the cases of spinal tuberculous meningitis. In addition, a picture similar to that in human postinfectious allergic or experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) has emerged. The spinal cords from one case of the former condition and from four animals with EAE are described to illustrate this similarity. The pathogenesis of tuberculous encephalopathy and myeloradiculopathy is believed, as before, to be due to delayed hypersensitivity, i.e., cell-mediated immunity (CMI) to tuberculoprotein. Experimental confirmation of this demyelination as a nonspecific consequence of CMI to various forms of tubercle bacillus proteins has recently been published. In a proportion of our cases, where two episodes of TM had occurred, the possibility of a hypersensitivity reaction to the brain's own myelin protein is also considered.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Acta neuropathologica 18 (1971), S. 286-298 
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Neuropathies ; Leprous Neuritis ; Demyelination ; Teasing ; Nerve Regeneration
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The pattern of myelin degeneration and regeneration was studied in 40 nerve biopsy or necropsy specimens, using the teased fibre method, including 35 specimens of leprous neuritis, and 5 control specimens, 3 from humans and 2 from monkeys. The specimens of leprous nerves were derived from 10 lepromatous, borderline, or tuberculoid cases in an advanced polyneuritic stage. Nearly two-thirds showed Wallerian degeneration, which was very frequent in all types of leprosy. Segmental demyelination was observed in about one-fourth of the specimens and was more frequent in lepromatous cases. Regeneration was frequently encountered in nerve specimens from cases of all types of leprous neuritis. There was more often regeneration after Wallerian degeneration in the form of thin fibres with short uniform internodes, than an irregular remyelination after segmental demyelination. The two were further distinguished from one another by measuring the internodal lengths and fibre diameters. Extensive Schwann sheath proliferation was observed in almost all specimens of leprosy; the non-specificity of this is stressed. The significance of studying degenerative and regenerative changes at different levels of the same nerve from leprous neuritis, is discussed. The findings have shown that the myelin of the distal-most parts of the nerves sustains more severe damage, confirming earlier similar observations on paraffin sections. The control specimens, 3 of which were fixed in formalin for prolonged periods, did not show any significant abnormalities in the myelin.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Abdominal imaging 5 (1980), S. 17-20 
    ISSN: 1432-0509
    Keywords: Amyloidosis, diagnosis ; Stomach, ulcerated mass
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Localized amyloid deposit in the gastric antrum presented as an ulcerated mass on upper gastrointestinal series. Radiographic and autopsy findings are correlated and the literature is reviewed.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Acta neuropathologica 6 (1966), S. 311-326 
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Acta neuropathologica 2 (1962), S. 161-176 
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung An Hand der autoptischen Untersuchungen an einem Patienten, der Zeichen eines Mittellinientumors der hinteren Schädelgrube sowie Schmerzen im Nacken und in den unteren Gliedmaßen geboten hatte, werden Pathogenese, Histopathologie und in beschränktem Maße auch die Histochemie des Eisens im Liquor und im ZNS diskutiert. Folgende Befunde wurden erhoben: 1. ein hämorrhagisches Pinealom mit Meningealsiderose; 2. eine arachnoidale Kleinhirncyste mit xanthochromem Inhalt und mit Eisenpigment in den Wänden; 3. Siderose der Randzonen des ZNS, besonders des Kleinhirns; 4. Siderose der spinalen Wurzelscheiden und der Meningen; 5. siderotische Nekrosen der Spinalganglien mit entzündlichen Gefäßreaktionen; 6. schließlich Siderose der Spinalnerven, besonders des Perineuriums. Die Rolle des Liquors als diffusibles Agens und der diffusiblen toxischen Eisenmicellen beim Zustandekommen dieser Veränderungen wird betont.
    Notes: Summary The pathogenesis, histopathology and, to a limited extent, the histochemistry of iron in the CSF and the CNS are discussed in the light of post-mortem observations made on a patient who had presented himself with signs of a midline posterior fossa tumour and with pains in the neck and the lower limbs. He showed (1) a haemorrhagic pinealoma with meningeal siderosis; (2) an arachnoidal cerebellar cyst with iron pigment in the wall and xanthochromic fluid; (3) siderosis of CNS, especially of cerebellar, border zones; (4) siderosis of spinal root sheaths and meninges; (5) siderotic necrosis of spinal ganglia, with vascular, histiocytic and inflammatory reactions; and (6) siderosis of spinal nerve, especially of the perineurium. The role of CSF as a diffusing agent, and of diffusible toxic ferric micelles, in the production of these changes is stressed.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Experimental fenfluramine neurotoxicity ; Lysosomal storage ; Anorectic amphophilic compound ; Neurons ; Oligodendroglia ; Microglia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Fenfluramine, an amphophilic compound which is a halogenated derivative of amphetamine, is still used as an anorectic agent for weight reduction, as it acts on the satiety center of the hypothalamus. Holtzman strain rats aged 6 days were daily injected s.c. fenfluramine hydrochloride at the dose of 75 mg/kg body weight. The animals were killed at different time intervals between days 7 and 40, and different parts of the brain were examined by light and electron microscopy. About half of the animals showed intralysosomal membrano-cytoplasmic bodies in the oligodendroglia, neurons, and neuropil, maximally in the animals receiving 8–19 injections. They were seen as concentrically arranged, single-layered lamellae; small dense bodies; or larger heterogeneous bodies. The mechanism of production of such inclusions could be the formation of complexes of this amphophilic compound with tissue phospholipids, or some enzyme-inhibiting action. A marked prominence of dark cells, predominantly oligodendroglia, was also noticed in the brains of experimental animals. Some of these cells appeared to be dark neurons, probably resulting from the serotonin-depleting effect of fenfluramine. A few dark cells were identified as resting microglial cells, while macrophagic “reactive microglia” were detected in the brains of very young animals. Fenfluramine appears to provide a model for studying neuroglial reactions.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Lactating buffalo mammary tissues exhibited biliverdin reductase activity. The supernatant fraction obtained from the tissue possessed the enzyme activity. Enzyme activity could not be detected in non-lactating mammary tissues, and was absent in lactating and non-lactating mammary tissues from cow and goat.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 210 (1966), S. 841-843 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Our own method has been considerably simplified. First, the soaking and washing for 8 days through three changes of water (carried out initially to emulate the cooking procedure of the Guamanians)6 has been dispensed with since this seems to remove the cycasin from the cycad nut1'7. Secondly, the ...
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 206 (1965), S. 1363-1365 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] In 1955 Nishida et al.3 isolated for the first time the glycoside 'cycasin' from the Japanese species Cycas revoluta and showed it to be glucosyl-oxyazoxy-methane (C6 H11 O5OCH2 N = N CH3). O In 1956 Riggs4 demonstrated its presence in Cycas circinalis from Guam. In order to examine possible ...
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