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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-07-19
    Description: Brown rot decay removes cellulose and hemicellulose from wood--residual lignin contributing up to 30% of forest soil carbon--and is derived from an ancestral white rot saprotrophy in which both lignin and cellulose are decomposed. Comparative and functional genomics of the "dry rot" fungus Serpula lacrymans, derived from forest ancestors, demonstrated that the evolution of both ectomycorrhizal biotrophy and brown rot saprotrophy were accompanied by reductions and losses in specific protein families, suggesting adaptation to an intercellular interaction with plant tissue. Transcriptome and proteome analysis also identified differences in wood decomposition in S. lacrymans relative to the brown rot Postia placenta. Furthermore, fungal nutritional mode diversification suggests that the boreal forest biome originated via genetic coevolution of above- and below-ground biota.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Eastwood, Daniel C -- Floudas, Dimitrios -- Binder, Manfred -- Majcherczyk, Andrzej -- Schneider, Patrick -- Aerts, Andrea -- Asiegbu, Fred O -- Baker, Scott E -- Barry, Kerrie -- Bendiksby, Mika -- Blumentritt, Melanie -- Coutinho, Pedro M -- Cullen, Dan -- de Vries, Ronald P -- Gathman, Allen -- Goodell, Barry -- Henrissat, Bernard -- Ihrmark, Katarina -- Kauserud, Havard -- Kohler, Annegret -- LaButti, Kurt -- Lapidus, Alla -- Lavin, Jose L -- Lee, Yong-Hwan -- Lindquist, Erika -- Lilly, Walt -- Lucas, Susan -- Morin, Emmanuelle -- Murat, Claude -- Oguiza, Jose A -- Park, Jongsun -- Pisabarro, Antonio G -- Riley, Robert -- Rosling, Anna -- Salamov, Asaf -- Schmidt, Olaf -- Schmutz, Jeremy -- Skrede, Inger -- Stenlid, Jan -- Wiebenga, Ad -- Xie, Xinfeng -- Kues, Ursula -- Hibbett, David S -- Hoffmeister, Dirk -- Hogberg, Nils -- Martin, Francis -- Grigoriev, Igor V -- Watkinson, Sarah C -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Aug 5;333(6043):762-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1205411. Epub 2011 Jul 14.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉College of Science, University of Swansea, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK. d.c.eastwood@swansea.ac.uk〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21764756" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Angiosperms/microbiology ; Basidiomycota/classification/enzymology/*genetics/physiology ; *Biodiversity ; Biological Evolution ; Biota ; Cell Wall/*metabolism ; Coniferophyta/microbiology ; Coriolaceae/enzymology/genetics/physiology ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Genes, Fungal ; Genomics ; Lignin/metabolism ; Mycorrhizae/enzymology/*genetics/physiology ; Oxidoreductases/genetics/metabolism ; Peroxidases/genetics/metabolism ; Phylogeny ; Proteome ; Symbiosis ; Trees/*microbiology ; Wood/metabolism/*microbiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0991
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Vacuole-mediated proteolysis is important to sustained growth of filamentous wood-decaying fungi such as Schizophyllum commune. Demonstrating that specific proteases are vacuole associated has been difficult in these organisms due to the lack of specific markers for vacuolar compartments. We used 5-(and 6-)-carboxy-2′, 7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (carboxy-DCFDA) and a proprietary vacuolar membrane marker for yeast (MDY-64; Molecular Probes) for in situ fluorescent labeling of the vacuoles of S. commune mycelia grown on microscope slides. MDY-64 labels numerous small vesicles in S. commune mycelia in addition to larger vacuolar structures. In contrast, carboxy-DCFDA apparently is taken up by a subset of the MDY-64-labeled vesicles, accumulating primarily in larger vacuoles. Staining of mycelia with carboxy-DCFDA shows a transition from mostly cytoplasmic fluorescence in apical cells with little vacuolar fluorescence to nearly complete sequestration of the stain in vacuoles of older cells. In penultimate cells, both cytoplasm and vacuolar structures fluoresce. Vacuoles stained with carboxy-DCFDA typically were spherical and ranged in size from 0.4 μm to 3.2 μm in diameter with a mean of 1.8 um. Occasionally, in penultimate cells, tubular structures which stained with carboxy-DCFDA were found. ScPrB, a principal enzyme of nitrogen-limitation induced autolysis in S. commune, copurified in sucrose density gradients with carboxy-DCFDA and acid phosphatase, demonstrating its vacuolar localization.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The suitability of using annually grown, carrot-sized buffalo gourd (Cucurbita foetidissima) roots as a feedstock for alcoholic fermentation was explored. Roots grown in 1982 and 1983 were slurried, dextrinized and saccharified using Takatherm™ and Diazyme™ (commercial enzymes manufactured by Miles Laboratories), and fermented by the action of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These processes were monitored in detail and results were compared with those displayed by controls formulated using potato tubers. The preparation of gourd root slurries with suitable viscosity characteristics for enzymatic digestion required the addition of water (at least 50% by weight) which reduced the proportion of fermentable sugars in the resulting saccharified suspensions. The resulting slurries were well-suited to enzymatic conversion of starch to sugar. Estimates of enzymatic efficiency in gourd root suspensions did not suggest the presence of naturally occurring amylase or glucosidase inhibitors in these plant materials. Saccharified gourd root mashes supported yeast growth well and produced ethanol yields at 82.2-86.5% of the theoretically maximum efficiency.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Journal of Fluency Disorders 19 (1994), S. 175 
    ISSN: 0094-730X
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Linguistics and Literary Studies , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Journal of Fluency Disorders 19 (1994), S. 175 
    ISSN: 0094-730X
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Linguistics and Literary Studies , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pure and applied geophysics 100 (1972), S. 60-69 
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Es war lange Zeit schwierig, die ozeanischen Gewitter zu untersuchen. Die klassische Erklärung für die Aufrechterhaltung der elektrischen Erdladung gründet sich auf den Zusammenhang zwischen dem luftelektrischen Potentialgefälle auf See und der weltweiten Gewittertätigkeit, wofür die Kenntnis der Tagesgänge der Gewitter über Land und über den Ozean eine wichtige Voraussetzung bilden. Beobachtungsmaterial mit mehr als sieben Millionen synoptischen Beobachtungen — gewonen von Schiffen auf allen Ozeanen — wurde ausgewertet um auf eine neue Weise die von Gewittern bedeckten ozeanischen Flächengrösse in ihrer nach Weltzeit verlaufenden Variation zu untersuchen. Es stellt sich heraus dass das Jahresmittel dieser Flächengrösse bei 202·104 km2 liegt, mit einem tageszeitlichen Höchstwert von 240·104 km2 in der Zeit zwischen 1800 und 2400 GMT. Ein tageszeitlicher Mindestwert wurde zu 167·104 km2 gefunden, welcher zwischen 0600 und 1200 GMT auftritt.
    Notes: Summary The oceanic thunderstorm has long been a difficult phenomenon to investigate. The diurnal variation of these storms together with that of land based storms is essential in providing the statistical correlation between global thunderstorm activity and oceanic potential gradients upon which the classical explanation of the maintenance of the earth's electric charge is based. A data base of over seven million synoptic observations by ships throughout the world ocean has been analyzed to give a fresh approach and insight to the universal time variation of ocean areas affected by thunderstorms. According to these data, the annual average of this ocean area has a mean of 202×104 km2 with a diurnal peak of 240×104 km2 in the interval of 1800 to 2400 GMT. A diurnal minimum is observed to be 167×104 km2 in the interval of 0600 to 1200 GMT.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1526-100X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: We used wetland mesocosms (1) to experimentally assess whether inoculating a restored wetland site with vegetation/sediment plugs from a natural wetland would alter the development of invertebrate communities relative to unaided controls and (2) to determine if stocking of a poor invertebrate colonizer could further modify community development beyond that due to simple inoculation. After filling mesocosms with soil from a drained and cultivated former wetland and restoring comparable hydrology, mesocosms were randomly assigned to one of three treatments: control (a reference for unaided community development), inoculated (received three vegetation/sediment cores from a natural wetland), and stocked + inoculated (received three cores and were stocked with a poorly dispersing invertebrate group—gastropods). All mesocosms were placed 100 m from a natural wetland and allowed to colonize for 82 days. Facilitation of invertebrate colonization led to communities in inoculated and stocked + inoculated treatments that contrasted strongly with those in the unaided control treatment. Control mesocosms had the highest taxa richness but the lowest diversity due to high densities and dominance of Tanytarsini (Diptera: Chironomidae). Community structure in inoculated and stocked + inoculated mesocosms was more similar to that of a nearby natural wetland, with abundance more evenly distributed among taxa, leading to diversity that was higher than in the control treatment. Inoculated and stocked + inoculated communities were dominated by non-aerial invertebrates, whereas control mesocosms were dominated by aerial invertebrates. These results suggest that facilitation of invertebrate recruitment does indeed alter invertebrate community development and that facilitation may lead to a more natural community structure in less time under conditions simulating wetland restoration.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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