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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Genomics 15 (1993), S. 659-667 
    ISSN: 0888-7543
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0888-7543
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Chromosome 18 appears to have the lowest gene density of any human chromosome and is one of only three chromosomes for which trisomic individuals survive to term. There are also a number of genetic disorders stemming from chromosome 18 trisomy and aneuploidy. Here we report the finished ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1546-1718
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] Hereditary haemochromatosis (HH), which affects some 1 in 400 and has an estimated carrier frequency of 1 in 10 individuals of Northern European descent, results in multi–organ dysfunction caused by increased iron deposition, and is treatable if detected early. Using ...
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1572-9931
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The isolation of a human cDNA encoding the multifunctional protein containing GAR synthetase, AIR synthetase, and GAR transformylase by functional complementation of purine auxotrophy in yeast has been reported. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell mutant purine auxotrophs deficient in GAR synthetase (Ade−C) or AIR synthetase plus GAR transformylase (Ade−G) activities were transfected with this human GART cDNA subcloned into a mammalian expression vector. This restored 49–140% of the activities of GAR synthetase, AIR synthetase, and GAR transformylase in transfected cells when compared to wild-type CHO K1 parental cells. Study of one stably expressing transfectant, AdeC2, revealed that the human GART cDNA was incorporated into the CHO genome. The enzyme activities appear to be associated with an expressed protein of 110 kDa, very similar to that of purified human GART trifunctional enzyme. The Ade−C mutant shows reduced amounts of GART mRNA compared to CHO K1 and a protein of apparently reduced size, results consistent with the purine requirement and enzyme deficiency observed in the mutant. These experiments provide definitive evidence that the human GART cDNA encodes and can direct the production of active human GART trifunctional protein in mammalian cells. They also provide important evidence that the Ade−C and Ade−G mutants of CHO cells are defective in this gene.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1572-9931
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract DNA of two yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) containing selectable human genes was transferred by microinjection to rodent cells in tissue culture. The human hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gene, spanning 45 kb, is contained on the 660-kb YAC yHPRT as described elsewhere. The human phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase (GART) gene, spanning approximately 40 kb, is contained on the 590-kb YAC yGART2 as described previously. YAC DNA was isolated from pulsed-field gels and microinjected into mammalian cells in which the human HPRT and GART genes can be selected. The cell lines that were selected contain the entire human genes. Some of the cell lines contain multiple copies of the genes integrated at the same chromosomal position. The YAC yGART2 could not be purified away from natural yeast chromosomes of similar size, and the cell lines into which the human GART gene was introduced contain variable amounts of yeast DNA in addition to the human DNA.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    BioEssays 13 (1991), S. 545-550 
    ISSN: 0265-9247
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Human DNA can be cloned as yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs), each of which contains several hundred kilobases of human DNA. This DNA can be manipulated in the yeast host using homologous recombination and yeast selectable markers. In relatively few steps it is possible to make virtually any change in the cloned human DNA from single base pair changes to deletions and insertions. In order to study the function of the cloned DNA and the effects of the changes made in the yeast, the human DNA must be transferred back into mammalian cells. Recent experiments indicate that large genes can be transferred from the yeast host to mammalian cells in tissue culture and that the genes are transferred intact and are expressed. Using the same methods it may soon be possible to transfer YAC DNA into the mouse germ line so that the expression and function of genes cloned in YACs can be studied in developing and adult mammalian animals.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-09
    Description: DNA methylation is a defining feature of mammalian cellular identity and is essential for normal development. Most cell types, except germ cells and pre-implantation embryos, display relatively stable DNA methylation patterns, with 70-80% of all CpGs being methylated. Despite recent advances, we still have a limited understanding of when, where and how many CpGs participate in genomic regulation. Here we report the in-depth analysis of 42 whole-genome bisulphite sequencing data sets across 30 diverse human cell and tissue types. We observe dynamic regulation for only 21.8% of autosomal CpGs within a normal developmental context, most of which are distal to transcription start sites. These dynamic CpGs co-localize with gene regulatory elements, particularly enhancers and transcription-factor-binding sites, which allow identification of key lineage-specific regulators. In addition, differentially methylated regions (DMRs) often contain single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with cell-type-related diseases as determined by genome-wide association studies. The results also highlight the general inefficiency of whole-genome bisulphite sequencing, as 70-80% of the sequencing reads across these data sets provided little or no relevant information about CpG methylation. To demonstrate further the utility of our DMR set, we use it to classify unknown samples and identify representative signature regions that recapitulate major DNA methylation dynamics. In summary, although in theory every CpG can change its methylation state, our results suggest that only a fraction does so as part of coordinated regulatory programs. Therefore, our selected DMRs can serve as a starting point to guide new, more effective reduced representation approaches to capture the most informative fraction of CpGs, as well as further pinpoint putative regulatory elements.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3821869/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3821869/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ziller, Michael J -- Gu, Hongcang -- Muller, Fabian -- Donaghey, Julie -- Tsai, Linus T-Y -- Kohlbacher, Oliver -- De Jager, Philip L -- Rosen, Evan D -- Bennett, David A -- Bernstein, Bradley E -- Gnirke, Andreas -- Meissner, Alexander -- ES017690/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- P01 GM099117/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P01GM099117/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P30AG10161/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG017917/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01AG15819/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01AG17917/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01AG36042/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- U01 ES017155/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- U01ES017155/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Aug 22;500(7463):477-81. doi: 10.1038/nature12433. Epub 2013 Aug 7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23925113" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Binding Sites ; CpG Islands/genetics ; *DNA Methylation ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic/genetics ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; Humans ; Organ Specificity ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Sulfites/metabolism ; Transcription Factors/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2015-02-20
    Description: Pluripotent stem cells provide a powerful system to dissect the underlying molecular dynamics that regulate cell fate changes during mammalian development. Here we report the integrative analysis of genome-wide binding data for 38 transcription factors with extensive epigenome and transcriptional data across the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells to the three germ layers. We describe core regulatory dynamics and show the lineage-specific behaviour of selected factors. In addition to the orchestrated remodelling of the chromatin landscape, we find that the binding of several transcription factors is strongly associated with specific loss of DNA methylation in one germ layer, and in many cases a reciprocal gain in the other layers. Taken together, our work shows context-dependent rewiring of transcription factor binding, downstream signalling effectors, and the epigenome during human embryonic stem cell differentiation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4499331/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4499331/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tsankov, Alexander M -- Gu, Hongcang -- Akopian, Veronika -- Ziller, Michael J -- Donaghey, Julie -- Amit, Ido -- Gnirke, Andreas -- Meissner, Alexander -- 5F32DK095537/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P01 GM099117/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P01GM099117/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P50HG006193/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01 ES017155/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- U01ES017155/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Feb 19;518(7539):344-9. doi: 10.1038/nature14233.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA [2] Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA [3] Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. ; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; 1] Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA [2] Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. ; 1] Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA [2] Department of Immunology, Weizmann Institute, Rehovot, 76100 Israel.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25693565" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Cell Differentiation/genetics ; Cell Lineage ; Chromatin/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly/genetics ; DNA Methylation ; Embryonic Stem Cells/*cytology/*metabolism ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic/genetics ; Epigenesis, Genetic/genetics ; Epigenomics ; Genome, Human/genetics ; Germ Layers/cytology/metabolism ; Histones/chemistry/metabolism ; Humans ; Protein Binding ; Signal Transduction ; Transcription Factors/*metabolism ; Transcription, Genetic/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-09-13
    Description: In its largest outbreak, Ebola virus disease is spreading through Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Nigeria. We sequenced 99 Ebola virus genomes from 78 patients in Sierra Leone to ~2000x coverage. We observed a rapid accumulation of interhost and intrahost genetic variation, allowing us to characterize patterns of viral transmission over the initial weeks of the epidemic. This West African variant likely diverged from central African lineages around 2004, crossed from Guinea to Sierra Leone in May 2014, and has exhibited sustained human-to-human transmission subsequently, with no evidence of additional zoonotic sources. Because many of the mutations alter protein sequences and other biologically meaningful targets, they should be monitored for impact on diagnostics, vaccines, and therapies critical to outbreak response.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4431643/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4431643/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gire, Stephen K -- Goba, Augustine -- Andersen, Kristian G -- Sealfon, Rachel S G -- Park, Daniel J -- Kanneh, Lansana -- Jalloh, Simbirie -- Momoh, Mambu -- Fullah, Mohamed -- Dudas, Gytis -- Wohl, Shirlee -- Moses, Lina M -- Yozwiak, Nathan L -- Winnicki, Sarah -- Matranga, Christian B -- Malboeuf, Christine M -- Qu, James -- Gladden, Adrianne D -- Schaffner, Stephen F -- Yang, Xiao -- Jiang, Pan-Pan -- Nekoui, Mahan -- Colubri, Andres -- Coomber, Moinya Ruth -- Fonnie, Mbalu -- Moigboi, Alex -- Gbakie, Michael -- Kamara, Fatima K -- Tucker, Veronica -- Konuwa, Edwin -- Saffa, Sidiki -- Sellu, Josephine -- Jalloh, Abdul Azziz -- Kovoma, Alice -- Koninga, James -- Mustapha, Ibrahim -- Kargbo, Kandeh -- Foday, Momoh -- Yillah, Mohamed -- Kanneh, Franklyn -- Robert, Willie -- Massally, James L B -- Chapman, Sinead B -- Bochicchio, James -- Murphy, Cheryl -- Nusbaum, Chad -- Young, Sarah -- Birren, Bruce W -- Grant, Donald S -- Scheiffelin, John S -- Lander, Eric S -- Happi, Christian -- Gevao, Sahr M -- Gnirke, Andreas -- Rambaut, Andrew -- Garry, Robert F -- Khan, S Humarr -- Sabeti, Pardis C -- 095831/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 1DP2OD006514-01/OD/NIH HHS/ -- 1U01HG007480-01/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- 260864/European Research Council/International -- DP2 OD006514/OD/NIH HHS/ -- GM080177/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- HHSN272200900049C/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- HHSN272200900049C/PHS HHS/ -- T32 GM080177/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG007480/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI110818/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI115589/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Sep 12;345(6202):1369-72. doi: 10.1126/science.1259657. Epub 2014 Aug 28.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Systems Biology, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. ; Kenema Government Hospital, Kenema, Sierra Leone. andersen@broadinstitute.org augstgoba@yahoo.com psabeti@oeb.harvard.edu. ; Center for Systems Biology, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. andersen@broadinstitute.org augstgoba@yahoo.com psabeti@oeb.harvard.edu. ; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. ; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. ; Kenema Government Hospital, Kenema, Sierra Leone. ; Kenema Government Hospital, Kenema, Sierra Leone. Eastern Polytechnic College, Kenema, Sierra Leone. ; Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK. ; Center for Systems Biology, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Tulane University Medical Center, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA. ; Center for Systems Biology, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. ; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. ; Redeemer's University, Ogun State, Nigeria. ; University of Sierra Leone, Freetown, Sierra Leone. ; Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK. Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Centre for Immunity, Infection and Evolution, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25214632" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Base Sequence ; *Disease Outbreaks ; Ebolavirus/*genetics/isolation & purification ; *Epidemiological Monitoring ; Genetic Variation ; Genome, Viral/genetics ; Genomics/methods ; Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology/*transmission/*virology ; Humans ; Mutation ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Sierra Leone/epidemiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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