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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-05-26
    Description: The source and nature of carbon on Mars have been a subject of intense speculation. We report the results of confocal Raman imaging spectroscopy on 11 martian meteorites, spanning about 4.2 billion years of martian history. Ten of the meteorites contain abiotic macromolecular carbon (MMC) phases detected in association with small oxide grains included within high-temperature minerals. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected along with MMC phases in Dar al Gani 476. The association of organic carbon within magmatic minerals indicates that martian magmas favored precipitation of reduced carbon species during crystallization. The ubiquitous distribution of abiotic organic carbon in martian igneous rocks is important for understanding the martian carbon cycle and has implications for future missions to detect possible past martian life.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Steele, A -- McCubbin, F M -- Fries, M -- Kater, L -- Boctor, N Z -- Fogel, M L -- Conrad, P G -- Glamoclija, M -- Spencer, M -- Morrow, A L -- Hammond, M R -- Zare, R N -- Vicenzi, E P -- Siljestrom, S -- Bowden, R -- Herd, C D K -- Mysen, B O -- Shirey, S B -- Amundsen, H E F -- Treiman, A H -- Bullock, E S -- Jull, A J T -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Jul 13;337(6091):212-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1220715. Epub 2012 May 24.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5251 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015, USA. asteele@ciw.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22628557" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Carbon/*analysis ; Crystallization ; Extraterrestrial Environment ; *Mars ; *Meteoroids ; Organic Chemicals/*analysis ; Oxidation-Reduction ; Oxides/analysis ; Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic/*analysis/chemistry ; Silicates/*chemistry ; Spectrum Analysis, Raman
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-09-28
    Description: "Jake_M," the first rock analyzed by the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer instrument on the Curiosity rover, differs substantially in chemical composition from other known martian igneous rocks: It is alkaline (〉15% normative nepheline) and relatively fractionated. Jake_M is compositionally similar to terrestrial mugearites, a rock type typically found at ocean islands and continental rifts. By analogy with these comparable terrestrial rocks, Jake_M could have been produced by extensive fractional crystallization of a primary alkaline or transitional magma at elevated pressure, with or without elevated water contents. The discovery of Jake_M suggests that alkaline magmas may be more abundant on Mars than on Earth and that Curiosity could encounter even more fractionated alkaline rocks (for example, phonolites and trachytes).〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Stolper, E M -- Baker, M B -- Newcombe, M E -- Schmidt, M E -- Treiman, A H -- Cousin, A -- Dyar, M D -- Fisk, M R -- Gellert, R -- King, P L -- Leshin, L -- Maurice, S -- McLennan, S M -- Minitti, M E -- Perrett, G -- Rowland, S -- Sautter, V -- Wiens, R C -- MSL Science Team -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Sep 27;341(6153):1239463. doi: 10.1126/science.1239463.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA. ems@gps.caltech.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24072927" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-12-11
    Description: Sedimentary rocks examined by the Curiosity rover at Yellowknife Bay, Mars, were derived from sources that evolved from an approximately average martian crustal composition to one influenced by alkaline basalts. No evidence of chemical weathering is preserved, indicating arid, possibly cold, paleoclimates and rapid erosion and deposition. The absence of predicted geochemical variations indicates that magnetite and phyllosilicates formed by diagenesis under low-temperature, circumneutral pH, rock-dominated aqueous conditions. Analyses of diagenetic features (including concretions, raised ridges, and fractures) at high spatial resolution indicate that they are composed of iron- and halogen-rich components, magnesium-iron-chlorine-rich components, and hydrated calcium sulfates, respectively. Composition of a cross-cutting dike-like feature is consistent with sedimentary intrusion. The geochemistry of these sedimentary rocks provides further evidence for diverse depositional and diagenetic sedimentary environments during the early history of Mars.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉McLennan, S M -- Anderson, R B -- Bell, J F 3rd -- Bridges, J C -- Calef, F 3rd -- Campbell, J L -- Clark, B C -- Clegg, S -- Conrad, P -- Cousin, A -- Des Marais, D J -- Dromart, G -- Dyar, M D -- Edgar, L A -- Ehlmann, B L -- Fabre, C -- Forni, O -- Gasnault, O -- Gellert, R -- Gordon, S -- Grant, J A -- Grotzinger, J P -- Gupta, S -- Herkenhoff, K E -- Hurowitz, J A -- King, P L -- Le Mouelic, S -- Leshin, L A -- Leveille, R -- Lewis, K W -- Mangold, N -- Maurice, S -- Ming, D W -- Morris, R V -- Nachon, M -- Newsom, H E -- Ollila, A M -- Perrett, G M -- Rice, M S -- Schmidt, M E -- Schwenzer, S P -- Stack, K -- Stolper, E M -- Sumner, D Y -- Treiman, A H -- VanBommel, S -- Vaniman, D T -- Vasavada, A -- Wiens, R C -- Yingst, R A -- MSL Science Team -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Jan 24;343(6169):1244734. doi: 10.1126/science.1244734. Epub 2013 Dec 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Geosciences, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24324274" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Bays ; Calcium Sulfate/analysis/chemistry ; Chlorine/analysis/chemistry ; *Exobiology ; Extraterrestrial Environment/*chemistry ; Ferrosoferric Oxide/analysis/chemistry ; Geologic Sediments/*chemistry ; Halogens/analysis/chemistry ; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration ; Iron/analysis/chemistry ; Magnesium/analysis/chemistry ; *Mars ; Silicates/analysis/chemistry ; Water/chemistry
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-12-11
    Description: H2O, CO2, SO2, O2, H2, H2S, HCl, chlorinated hydrocarbons, NO, and other trace gases were evolved during pyrolysis of two mudstone samples acquired by the Curiosity rover at Yellowknife Bay within Gale crater, Mars. H2O/OH-bearing phases included 2:1 phyllosilicate(s), bassanite, akaganeite, and amorphous materials. Thermal decomposition of carbonates and combustion of organic materials are candidate sources for the CO2. Concurrent evolution of O2 and chlorinated hydrocarbons suggests the presence of oxychlorine phase(s). Sulfides are likely sources for sulfur-bearing species. Higher abundances of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the mudstone compared with Rocknest windblown materials previously analyzed by Curiosity suggest that indigenous martian or meteoritic organic carbon sources may be preserved in the mudstone; however, the carbon source for the chlorinated hydrocarbons is not definitively of martian origin.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ming, D W -- Archer, P D Jr -- Glavin, D P -- Eigenbrode, J L -- Franz, H B -- Sutter, B -- Brunner, A E -- Stern, J C -- Freissinet, C -- McAdam, A C -- Mahaffy, P R -- Cabane, M -- Coll, P -- Campbell, J L -- Atreya, S K -- Niles, P B -- Bell, J F 3rd -- Bish, D L -- Brinckerhoff, W B -- Buch, A -- Conrad, P G -- Des Marais, D J -- Ehlmann, B L -- Fairen, A G -- Farley, K -- Flesch, G J -- Francois, P -- Gellert, R -- Grant, J A -- Grotzinger, J P -- Gupta, S -- Herkenhoff, K E -- Hurowitz, J A -- Leshin, L A -- Lewis, K W -- McLennan, S M -- Miller, K E -- Moersch, J -- Morris, R V -- Navarro-Gonzalez, R -- Pavlov, A A -- Perrett, G M -- Pradler, I -- Squyres, S W -- Summons, R E -- Steele, A -- Stolper, E M -- Sumner, D Y -- Szopa, C -- Teinturier, S -- Trainer, M G -- Treiman, A H -- Vaniman, D T -- Vasavada, A R -- Webster, C R -- Wray, J J -- Yingst, R A -- MSL Science Team -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Jan 24;343(6169):1245267. doi: 10.1126/science.1245267. Epub 2013 Dec 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science Directorate, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24324276" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Bays ; Carbon Dioxide/analysis/chemistry ; *Exobiology ; Extraterrestrial Environment/*chemistry ; Geologic Sediments/analysis/chemistry ; Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated/*analysis ; *Mars ; Oxygen/analysis/chemistry ; Sulfides/analysis/chemistry ; Volatile Organic Compounds/*analysis ; Water/analysis/chemistry
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-09-28
    Description: The Rocknest aeolian deposit is similar to aeolian features analyzed by the Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs) Spirit and Opportunity. The fraction of sand 〈150 micrometers in size contains ~55% crystalline material consistent with a basaltic heritage and ~45% x-ray amorphous material. The amorphous component of Rocknest is iron-rich and silicon-poor and is the host of the volatiles (water, oxygen, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, and chlorine) detected by the Sample Analysis at Mars instrument and of the fine-grained nanophase oxide component first described from basaltic soils analyzed by MERs. The similarity between soils and aeolian materials analyzed at Gusev Crater, Meridiani Planum, and Gale Crater implies locally sourced, globally similar basaltic materials or globally and regionally sourced basaltic components deposited locally at all three locations.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Blake, D F -- Morris, R V -- Kocurek, G -- Morrison, S M -- Downs, R T -- Bish, D -- Ming, D W -- Edgett, K S -- Rubin, D -- Goetz, W -- Madsen, M B -- Sullivan, R -- Gellert, R -- Campbell, I -- Treiman, A H -- McLennan, S M -- Yen, A S -- Grotzinger, J -- Vaniman, D T -- Chipera, S J -- Achilles, C N -- Rampe, E B -- Sumner, D -- Meslin, P-Y -- Maurice, S -- Forni, O -- Gasnault, O -- Fisk, M -- Schmidt, M -- Mahaffy, P -- Leshin, L A -- Glavin, D -- Steele, A -- Freissinet, C -- Navarro-Gonzalez, R -- Yingst, R A -- Kah, L C -- Bridges, N -- Lewis, K W -- Bristow, T F -- Farmer, J D -- Crisp, J A -- Stolper, E M -- Des Marais, D J -- Sarrazin, P -- MSL Science Team -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Sep 27;341(6153):1239505. doi: 10.1126/science.1239505.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉National Aeronautics and Space Administration Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA. david.blake@nasa.gov〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24072928" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-09-28
    Description: The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity scooped samples of soil from the Rocknest aeolian bedform in Gale crater. Analysis of the soil with the Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) x-ray diffraction (XRD) instrument revealed plagioclase (~An57), forsteritic olivine (~Fo62), augite, and pigeonite, with minor K-feldspar, magnetite, quartz, anhydrite, hematite, and ilmenite. The minor phases are present at, or near, detection limits. The soil also contains 27 +/- 14 weight percent x-ray amorphous material, likely containing multiple Fe(3+)- and volatile-bearing phases, including possibly a substance resembling hisingerite. The crystalline component is similar to the normative mineralogy of certain basaltic rocks from Gusev crater on Mars and of martian basaltic meteorites. The amorphous component is similar to that found on Earth in places such as soils on the Mauna Kea volcano, Hawaii.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bish, D L -- Blake, D F -- Vaniman, D T -- Chipera, S J -- Morris, R V -- Ming, D W -- Treiman, A H -- Sarrazin, P -- Morrison, S M -- Downs, R T -- Achilles, C N -- Yen, A S -- Bristow, T F -- Crisp, J A -- Morookian, J M -- Farmer, J D -- Rampe, E B -- Stolper, E M -- Spanovich, N -- MSL Science Team -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Sep 27;341(6153):1238932. doi: 10.1126/science.1238932.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Geological Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA. bish@indiana.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24072925" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-03-22
    Description: Recent discoveries of water-rich lunar apatite are more consistent with the hydrous magmas of Earth than the otherwise volatile-depleted rocks of the Moon. Paradoxically, this requires H-rich minerals to form in rocks that are otherwise nearly anhydrous. We modeled existing data from the literature, finding that nominally anhydrous minerals do not sufficiently fractionate H from F and Cl to generate H-rich apatite. Hydrous apatites are explained as the products of apatite-induced low magmatic fluorine, which increases the H/F ratio in melt and apatite. Mare basalts may contain hydrogen-rich apatite, but lunar magmas were most likely poor in hydrogen, in agreement with the volatile depletion that is both observed in lunar rocks and required for canonical giant-impact models of the formation of the Moon.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Boyce, J W -- Tomlinson, S M -- McCubbin, F M -- Greenwood, J P -- Treiman, A H -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Apr 25;344(6182):400-2. doi: 10.1126/science.1250398. Epub 2014 Mar 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24652938" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Apatites ; Crystallization ; Extraterrestrial Environment ; Fluorine ; Hydrogen ; *Moon ; Silicates ; Water
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-12-11
    Description: Sedimentary rocks at Yellowknife Bay (Gale crater) on Mars include mudstone sampled by the Curiosity rover. The samples, John Klein and Cumberland, contain detrital basaltic minerals, calcium sulfates, iron oxide or hydroxides, iron sulfides, amorphous material, and trioctahedral smectites. The John Klein smectite has basal spacing of ~10 angstroms, indicating little interlayer hydration. The Cumberland smectite has basal spacing at both ~13.2 and ~10 angstroms. The larger spacing suggests a partially chloritized interlayer or interlayer magnesium or calcium facilitating H2O retention. Basaltic minerals in the mudstone are similar to those in nearby eolian deposits. However, the mudstone has far less Fe-forsterite, possibly lost with formation of smectite plus magnetite. Late Noachian/Early Hesperian or younger age indicates that clay mineral formation on Mars extended beyond Noachian time.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Vaniman, D T -- Bish, D L -- Ming, D W -- Bristow, T F -- Morris, R V -- Blake, D F -- Chipera, S J -- Morrison, S M -- Treiman, A H -- Rampe, E B -- Rice, M -- Achilles, C N -- Grotzinger, J P -- McLennan, S M -- Williams, J -- Bell, J F 3rd -- Newsom, H E -- Downs, R T -- Maurice, S -- Sarrazin, P -- Yen, A S -- Morookian, J M -- Farmer, J D -- Stack, K -- Milliken, R E -- Ehlmann, B L -- Sumner, D Y -- Berger, G -- Crisp, J A -- Hurowitz, J A -- Anderson, R -- Des Marais, D J -- Stolper, E M -- Edgett, K S -- Gupta, S -- Spanovich, N -- MSL Science Team -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Jan 24;343(6169):1243480. doi: 10.1126/science.1243480. Epub 2013 Dec 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24324271" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Extraterrestrial Environment/*chemistry ; Ferrosoferric Oxide/analysis/chemistry ; Geologic Sediments/analysis/*chemistry ; *Mars ; Minerals/analysis/*chemistry ; Silicates/analysis/chemistry ; Silicon Compounds/analysis/chemistry
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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