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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-05-30
    Description: In female mice, two forms of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) ensure the selective silencing of female sex chromosomes during mouse embryogenesis. Beginning at the four-cell stage, imprinted XCI (iXCI) exclusively silences the paternal X chromosome. Later, around implantation, epiblast cells of the inner cell mass that give rise to the embryo reactivate the paternal X chromosome and undergo a random form of XCI (rXCI). Xist, a long non-coding RNA crucial for both forms of XCI, is activated by the ubiquitin ligase RLIM (also known as Rnf12). Although RLIM is required for triggering iXCI in mice, its importance for rXCI has been controversial. Here we show that RLIM levels are downregulated in embryonic cells undergoing rXCI. Using mouse genetics we demonstrate that female cells lacking RLIM from pre-implantation stages onwards show hallmarks of XCI, including Xist clouds and H3K27me3 foci, and have full embryogenic potential. These results provide evidence that RLIM is dispensable for rXCI, indicating that in mice an RLIM-independent mechanism activates Xist in the embryo proper.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4105192/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4105192/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shin, JongDae -- Wallingford, Mary C -- Gallant, Judith -- Marcho, Chelsea -- Jiao, Baowei -- Byron, Meg -- Bossenz, Michael -- Lawrence, Jeanne B -- Jones, Stephen N -- Mager, Jesse -- Bach, Ingolf -- CA077735/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA131158/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- DK32520/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- GM053234/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA131158/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM053234/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jul 3;511(7507):86-9. doi: 10.1038/nature13286. Epub 2014 May 25.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Program in Gene Function and Expression, University of Massachusetts Medical School (UMMS), Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA. ; Veterinary & Animal Sciences, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, USA. ; Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, UMMS, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA. ; 1] Program in Gene Function and Expression, University of Massachusetts Medical School (UMMS), Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA [2] Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Science, Kunming 650223, China. ; Ortenau Klinikum Lahr-Ettenheim, Institut fur Pathologie, 77933 Lahr, Germany. ; 1] Program in Gene Function and Expression, University of Massachusetts Medical School (UMMS), Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA [2] Program in Molecular Medicine, UMMS, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24870238" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Down-Regulation ; Embryo Implantation ; Embryo, Mammalian/embryology/metabolism ; Female ; Germ Layers/*embryology/*metabolism ; Histones/chemistry/metabolism ; In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence ; Lysine/metabolism ; Methylation ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics ; Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics/*metabolism ; X Chromosome Inactivation/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-05-09
    Description: Rapid Arctic warming and sea-ice reduction in the Arctic Ocean are widely attributed to anthropogenic climate change. The Arctic warming exceeds the global average warming because of feedbacks that include sea-ice reduction and other dynamical and radiative feedbacks. We find that the most prominent annual mean surface and tropospheric warming in the Arctic since 1979 has occurred in northeastern Canada and Greenland. In this region, much of the year-to-year temperature variability is associated with the leading mode of large-scale circulation variability in the North Atlantic, namely, the North Atlantic Oscillation. Here we show that the recent warming in this region is strongly associated with a negative trend in the North Atlantic Oscillation, which is a response to anomalous Rossby wave-train activity originating in the tropical Pacific. Atmospheric model experiments forced by prescribed tropical sea surface temperatures simulate the observed circulation changes and associated tropospheric and surface warming over northeastern Canada and Greenland. Experiments from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (ref. 16) models with prescribed anthropogenic forcing show no similar circulation changes related to the North Atlantic Oscillation or associated tropospheric warming. This suggests that a substantial portion of recent warming in the northeastern Canada and Greenland sector of the Arctic arises from unforced natural variability.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ding, Qinghua -- Wallace, John M -- Battisti, David S -- Steig, Eric J -- Gallant, Ailie J E -- Kim, Hyung-Jin -- Geng, Lei -- England -- Nature. 2014 May 8;509(7499):209-12. doi: 10.1038/nature13260.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Earth and Space Sciences and Quaternary Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; School of Geography and Environmental Science, Monash University, Victoria 3800, Australia. ; Climate Research Department, APEC Climate Center, 12 Centum 7-ro, Haeundae-gu, Busan 612-020, South Korea.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24805345" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Air ; Arctic Regions ; Canada ; *Feedback ; Global Warming/*statistics & numerical data ; Greenland ; Hot Temperature ; Human Activities ; Ice Cover ; Models, Theoretical ; Pacific Ocean ; Seawater ; *Tropical Climate
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-02-02
    Description: Objectives To assess the feasibility of delivering and evaluating a weight management (WM) programme for overweight patients with a family history (FH) of breast cancer (BC) or colorectal cancer (CRC). Study design A two-arm (intervention vs usual care) randomised controlled trial. Setting National Health Service (NHS) Tayside and NHS Grampian. Participants People with a FH of BC or CRC aged≥18 years and body mass index of ≥25 kg/m 2 referred to NHS genetic services. Intervention Participants were randomised to a control (lifestyle booklet) or 12-week intervention arm where they were given one face-to-face counselling session, four telephone consultations and web-based support. A goal of 5% reduction in body weight was set, and a personalised diet and physical activity (PA) programme was provided. Behavioural change techniques (motivational interviewing, action and coping plans and implementation intentions) were used. Primary outcome Feasibility measures: recruitment, programme implementation, fidelity measures, achieved measurements and retention, participant satisfaction assessed by questionnaire and qualitative interviews. Secondary outcomes Measured changes in weight and PA and reported diet and psychosocial measures between baseline and 12-week follow-up. Results Of 480 patients approached, 196 (41%) expressed interest in the study, and of those, 78 (40%) patients were randomised. Implementation of the programme was challenging within the time allotted and fidelity to the intervention modest (62%). Qualitative findings indicated the programme was well received. Questionnaires and anthropometric data were completed by 〉98%. Accelerometer data were attained by 84% and 54% at baseline and follow-up, respectively. Retention at 12 weeks was 76%. Overall, 36% of the intervention group (vs 0% in control) achieved 5% weight loss. Favourable increases in PA and reduction in dietary fat were also reported. Conclusions A lifestyle programme for people with a family history of cancer is feasible to conduct and acceptable to participants, and indicative results suggest favourable outcomes. Trial registration number ISRCTN13123470; Pre-results.
    Keywords: Public health, Open access, Patient-centred medicine
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0168-583X
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 5 (1991), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The overall transcription of DNA has previously been demonstrated to proceed at extremely high levels of accuracy. We review the evidence that the process of transcription is subject to proof-reading in the Hopfield sense. In addition, we speculate that the proof-reading activity associated with transcription is subject to cyclical phase transitions. That is, during periods of low processivity associated with initiation, RNA synthesis is relatively imprecise. The transition to the elongation phase of RNA synthesis, characterized by a shift to high processivity, is accompanied by enhanced proof-reading. A model for the damping of transcriptional errors, based on a PPi-mediated processive pyrophosphorolysis reaction, is discussed in terms of pausing during transcription.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0021-9673
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 302 (1983), S. 389-393 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Some frameshift mutations are strongly suppressed by limitation for particular aminoacyl-tRNA species. Here, we show that ribosome frameshifting at a specific tryptophan codon during Trp-tRNA limitation accounts for suppression of a group of downstream frameshift alleles in the rIIB gene ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1439-0426
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The primary structure of a polypeptide with significant similarity to human aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2) was deduced from the sequence of two overlapping cDNA clones derived from winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus, Walbaum) intestinal RNA and a partial genomic clone derived from winter flounder DNA. The deduced amino acid sequence (975 amino acids) is comprised of an N-terminal cytosolic portion of seven amino acid residues, followed by a 24-residue transmembrane anchor region, a 38-residue serine/threonine-rich junction and a 906-residue enzymatic domain that protrudes from the apical membrane of the enterocyte. A highly conserved signature sequence characteristic of zinc-dependent metallopeptidases (HExxH) is present, as well as seven putative glycosylation sites (NxS/T). Fourteen introns are present in the 7.53 kb portion of the gene that was cloned and sequenced. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assays using primers spanning intron/exon boundaries were used to determine the timing of expression of this gene in larval winter flounder. This represents the first aminopeptidase N sequence to be determined from a teleost fish and underscores the utility of molecular biological information in the investigation of larval fish digestion.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1095-8649
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Clones for two forms of pepsinogen A differing in isoelectric point as well as both α and β subunits of the proton pump were isolated from the stomach of winter flounder Pleuronectes americanus. All clones gave positive hybridization signals with DNA from other flatfish species. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that the two forms of pepsinogen were sequentially expressed. Expression of pepsinogen IIa was first detected in 13 days post-hatch (dph) larvae and increased towards the beginning of metamorphosis at 20 dph. Expression of pepsinogen IIb and proton pump genes was first detected at 20 dph and coincided with the appearance of gastric glands and the increase in pepsin activity. The levels of expression of pepsinogen IIb as well as of pepsin activity in 20-dph larvae were similar to those recorded in metamorphosed larvae (27 dph) and juveniles (41 dph). High pepsin activity and levels of expression of the pepsinogen and proton pump genes observed in 20-dph larvae indicate an advanced level of development and functionality of the winter flounder stomach at this stage of ontogeny. This advanced level of the stomach development at 1 week before the currently practised time of weaning suggests that feeding formulated feeds may be initiated earlier.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1095-8649
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The partial sequencing of two lipases from winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus, one most closely related to gastric, lingual and lysosomal acid lipase from other vertebrates and one most closely related to bile salt-activated lipase, is reported. Biochemical analyses of enzymatic activity demonstrated the greater contribution made by bile salt-activated lipase relative to neutral bile salt-independent lipase. Using molecular techniques, the tissue-specific expression of bile salt-activated lipase in pancreatic tissue and acid triacylglycerol lipase in a wide variety of organs was demonstrated. Furthermore, the developmental expression of these types of lipase in larval fish was established.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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