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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-06-19
    Description: Major international projects are underway that are aimed at creating a comprehensive catalogue of all the genes responsible for the initiation and progression of cancer. These studies involve the sequencing of matched tumour-normal samples followed by mathematical analysis to identify those genes in which mutations occur more frequently than expected by random chance. Here we describe a fundamental problem with cancer genome studies: as the sample size increases, the list of putatively significant genes produced by current analytical methods burgeons into the hundreds. The list includes many implausible genes (such as those encoding olfactory receptors and the muscle protein titin), suggesting extensive false-positive findings that overshadow true driver events. We show that this problem stems largely from mutational heterogeneity and provide a novel analytical methodology, MutSigCV, for resolving the problem. We apply MutSigCV to exome sequences from 3,083 tumour-normal pairs and discover extraordinary variation in mutation frequency and spectrum within cancer types, which sheds light on mutational processes and disease aetiology, and in mutation frequency across the genome, which is strongly correlated with DNA replication timing and also with transcriptional activity. By incorporating mutational heterogeneity into the analyses, MutSigCV is able to eliminate most of the apparent artefactual findings and enable the identification of genes truly associated with cancer.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3919509/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3919509/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lawrence, Michael S -- Stojanov, Petar -- Polak, Paz -- Kryukov, Gregory V -- Cibulskis, Kristian -- Sivachenko, Andrey -- Carter, Scott L -- Stewart, Chip -- Mermel, Craig H -- Roberts, Steven A -- Kiezun, Adam -- Hammerman, Peter S -- McKenna, Aaron -- Drier, Yotam -- Zou, Lihua -- Ramos, Alex H -- Pugh, Trevor J -- Stransky, Nicolas -- Helman, Elena -- Kim, Jaegil -- Sougnez, Carrie -- Ambrogio, Lauren -- Nickerson, Elizabeth -- Shefler, Erica -- Cortes, Maria L -- Auclair, Daniel -- Saksena, Gordon -- Voet, Douglas -- Noble, Michael -- DiCara, Daniel -- Lin, Pei -- Lichtenstein, Lee -- Heiman, David I -- Fennell, Timothy -- Imielinski, Marcin -- Hernandez, Bryan -- Hodis, Eran -- Baca, Sylvan -- Dulak, Austin M -- Lohr, Jens -- Landau, Dan-Avi -- Wu, Catherine J -- Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge -- Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo -- Koren, Amnon -- McCarroll, Steven A -- Mora, Jaume -- Lee, Ryan S -- Crompton, Brian -- Onofrio, Robert -- Parkin, Melissa -- Winckler, Wendy -- Ardlie, Kristin -- Gabriel, Stacey B -- Roberts, Charles W M -- Biegel, Jaclyn A -- Stegmaier, Kimberly -- Bass, Adam J -- Garraway, Levi A -- Meyerson, Matthew -- Golub, Todd R -- Gordenin, Dmitry A -- Sunyaev, Shamil -- Lander, Eric S -- Getz, Gad -- ES065073/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- T32 CA009172/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- T32 CA009216/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007753/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U24 CA143845/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003067/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Jul 11;499(7457):214-8. doi: 10.1038/nature12213. Epub 2013 Jun 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02141, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23770567" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Artifacts ; DNA Replication Timing ; Exome/genetics ; False Positive Reactions ; Gene Expression ; *Genetic Heterogeneity ; Genome, Human/genetics ; Humans ; Lung Neoplasms/genetics ; Mutation/*genetics ; Mutation Rate ; Neoplasms/classification/*genetics/pathology ; Neoplasms, Squamous Cell/genetics ; Oncogenes/*genetics ; Reproducibility of Results ; Sample Size
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-10-14
    Description: The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a strictly subterranean, extraordinarily long-lived eusocial mammal. Although it is the size of a mouse, its maximum lifespan exceeds 30 years, making this animal the longest-living rodent. Naked mole rats show negligible senescence, no age-related increase in mortality, and high fecundity until death. In addition to delayed ageing, they are resistant to both spontaneous cancer and experimentally induced tumorigenesis. Naked mole rats pose a challenge to the theories that link ageing, cancer and redox homeostasis. Although characterized by significant oxidative stress, the naked mole rat proteome does not show age-related susceptibility to oxidative damage or increased ubiquitination. Naked mole rats naturally reside in large colonies with a single breeding female, the 'queen', who suppresses the sexual maturity of her subordinates. They also live in full darkness, at low oxygen and high carbon dioxide concentrations, and are unable to sustain thermogenesis nor feel certain types of pain. Here we report the sequencing and analysis of the naked mole rat genome, which reveals unique genome features and molecular adaptations consistent with cancer resistance, poikilothermy, hairlessness and insensitivity to low oxygen, and altered visual function, circadian rythms and taste sensing. This information provides insights into the naked mole rat's exceptional longevity and ability to live in hostile conditions, in the dark and at low oxygen. The extreme traits of the naked mole rat, together with the reported genome and transcriptome information, offer opportunities for understanding ageing and advancing other areas of biological and biomedical research.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3319411/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3319411/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kim, Eun Bae -- Fang, Xiaodong -- Fushan, Alexey A -- Huang, Zhiyong -- Lobanov, Alexei V -- Han, Lijuan -- Marino, Stefano M -- Sun, Xiaoqing -- Turanov, Anton A -- Yang, Pengcheng -- Yim, Sun Hee -- Zhao, Xiang -- Kasaikina, Marina V -- Stoletzki, Nina -- Peng, Chunfang -- Polak, Paz -- Xiong, Zhiqiang -- Kiezun, Adam -- Zhu, Yabing -- Chen, Yuanxin -- Kryukov, Gregory V -- Zhang, Qiang -- Peshkin, Leonid -- Yang, Lan -- Bronson, Roderick T -- Buffenstein, Rochelle -- Wang, Bo -- Han, Changlei -- Li, Qiye -- Chen, Li -- Zhao, Wei -- Sunyaev, Shamil R -- Park, Thomas J -- Zhang, Guojie -- Wang, Jun -- Gladyshev, Vadim N -- AG021518/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- AG038004/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- CA080946/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG021518/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG021518-10/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG038004/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG038004-02/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA080946/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA080946-11/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Oct 12;479(7372):223-7. doi: 10.1038/nature10533.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Bioinspired Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, 120-750, Korea.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21993625" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptation, Physiological/*genetics ; Aging/genetics ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Body Temperature Regulation/genetics ; Carbon Dioxide/analysis/metabolism ; Circadian Rhythm/genetics ; Darkness ; Genes/genetics ; Genome/*genetics ; Genomic Instability/genetics ; Genomics ; Humans ; Ion Channels/genetics ; Longevity/*genetics/physiology ; Male ; Mitochondrial Proteins/genetics ; Mole Rats/*genetics/*physiology ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutagenesis/genetics ; Oxygen/analysis/metabolism ; Taste/genetics ; Transcriptome/genetics ; Visual Perception/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-12-10
    Description: Myocardial infarction (MI), a leading cause of death around the world, displays a complex pattern of inheritance. When MI occurs early in life, genetic inheritance is a major component to risk. Previously, rare mutations in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) genes have been shown to contribute to MI risk in individual families, whereas common variants at more than 45 loci have been associated with MI risk in the population. Here we evaluate how rare mutations contribute to early-onset MI risk in the population. We sequenced the protein-coding regions of 9,793 genomes from patients with MI at an early age (〈/=50 years in males and 〈/=60 years in females) along with MI-free controls. We identified two genes in which rare coding-sequence mutations were more frequent in MI cases versus controls at exome-wide significance. At low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), carriers of rare non-synonymous mutations were at 4.2-fold increased risk for MI; carriers of null alleles at LDLR were at even higher risk (13-fold difference). Approximately 2% of early MI cases harbour a rare, damaging mutation in LDLR; this estimate is similar to one made more than 40 years ago using an analysis of total cholesterol. Among controls, about 1 in 217 carried an LDLR coding-sequence mutation and had plasma LDL cholesterol 〉 190 mg dl(-1). At apolipoprotein A-V (APOA5), carriers of rare non-synonymous mutations were at 2.2-fold increased risk for MI. When compared with non-carriers, LDLR mutation carriers had higher plasma LDL cholesterol, whereas APOA5 mutation carriers had higher plasma triglycerides. Recent evidence has connected MI risk with coding-sequence mutations at two genes functionally related to APOA5, namely lipoprotein lipase and apolipoprotein C-III (refs 18, 19). Combined, these observations suggest that, as well as LDL cholesterol, disordered metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins contributes to MI risk.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4319990/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4319990/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Do, Ron -- Stitziel, Nathan O -- Won, Hong-Hee -- Jorgensen, Anders Berg -- Duga, Stefano -- Angelica Merlini, Pier -- Kiezun, Adam -- Farrall, Martin -- Goel, Anuj -- Zuk, Or -- Guella, Illaria -- Asselta, Rosanna -- Lange, Leslie A -- Peloso, Gina M -- Auer, Paul L -- NHLBI Exome Sequencing Project -- Girelli, Domenico -- Martinelli, Nicola -- Farlow, Deborah N -- DePristo, Mark A -- Roberts, Robert -- Stewart, Alexander F R -- Saleheen, Danish -- Danesh, John -- Epstein, Stephen E -- Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh -- Hovingh, G Kees -- Kastelein, John J -- Samani, Nilesh J -- Schunkert, Heribert -- Erdmann, Jeanette -- Shah, Svati H -- Kraus, William E -- Davies, Robert -- Nikpay, Majid -- Johansen, Christopher T -- Wang, Jian -- Hegele, Robert A -- Hechter, Eliana -- Marz, Winfried -- Kleber, Marcus E -- Huang, Jie -- Johnson, Andrew D -- Li, Mingyao -- Burke, Greg L -- Gross, Myron -- Liu, Yongmei -- Assimes, Themistocles L -- Heiss, Gerardo -- Lange, Ethan M -- Folsom, Aaron R -- Taylor, Herman A -- Olivieri, Oliviero -- Hamsten, Anders -- Clarke, Robert -- Reilly, Dermot F -- Yin, Wu -- Rivas, Manuel A -- Donnelly, Peter -- Rossouw, Jacques E -- Psaty, Bruce M -- Herrington, David M -- Wilson, James G -- Rich, Stephen S -- Bamshad, Michael J -- Tracy, Russell P -- Cupples, L Adrienne -- Rader, Daniel J -- Reilly, Muredach P -- Spertus, John A -- Cresci, Sharon -- Hartiala, Jaana -- Tang, W H Wilson -- Hazen, Stanley L -- Allayee, Hooman -- Reiner, Alex P -- Carlson, Christopher S -- Kooperberg, Charles -- Jackson, Rebecca D -- Boerwinkle, Eric -- Lander, Eric S -- Schwartz, Stephen M -- Siscovick, David S -- McPherson, Ruth -- Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne -- Abecasis, Goncalo R -- Watkins, Hugh -- Nickerson, Deborah A -- Ardissino, Diego -- Sunyaev, Shamil R -- O'Donnell, Christopher J -- Altshuler, David -- Gabriel, Stacey -- Kathiresan, Sekar -- 090532/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 095552/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 5U54HG003067-11/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- G-0907/Parkinson's UK/United Kingdom -- K08 HL114642/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- K08HL114642/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P01 HL076491/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P01 HL098055/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL107816/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL107816/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- RC2 HL-102923/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- RC2 HL-102924/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- RC2 HL-102925/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- RC2 HL-102926/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- RC2 HL-103010/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- T32 HL007208/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- T32HL00720/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- T32HL007604/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR000439/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- England -- Nature. 2015 Feb 5;518(7537):102-6. doi: 10.1038/nature13917. Epub 2014 Dec 10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. [2] Cardiovascular Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. [3] Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. [4] Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; 1] Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. [2] Division of Statistical Genomics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; Department of Clinical Biochemistry KB3011, Section for Molecular Genetics, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospitals and Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 1165, Denmark. ; Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Mediche e Medicina Traslazionale, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milano 20122, Italy. ; Division of Cardiology, Ospedale Niguarda, Milano 20162, Italy. ; Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2J, UK. ; Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. ; Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA. ; University of Verona School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Verona 37129, Italy. ; John &Jennifer Ruddy Canadian Cardiovascular Genetics Centre, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario K1Y 4W7, Canada. ; Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1TN, UK. ; MedStar Health Research Institute, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Hyattsville, Maryland 20782, USA. ; Department of Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam 1105 AZ, The Netherlands. ; Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, and Leicester NIHR Biomedical Research Unit in Cardiovascular Disease, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester LE3 9QP, UK. ; DZHK (German Research Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Munich Heart Alliance, Deutsches Herzzentrum Munchen, Technische Universitat Munchen, Berlin 13347, Germany. ; Medizinische Klinik II, University of Lubeck, Lubeck 23562, Germany. ; 1] Center for Human Genetics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA. [2] Department of Cardiology and Center for Genomic Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA. ; Department of Cardiology and Center for Genomic Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA. ; Division of Cardiology, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario K1Y 4W7, Canada. ; Department of Biochemistry, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada. ; 1] Department of Biochemistry, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada. [2] Department of Medicine, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada. ; 1] Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim Institute of Public Health, Social and Preventive Medicine, Heidelberg University, Ludolf Krehl Strasse 7-11, Mannheim D-68167, Germany. [2] Clinical Institute of Medical and Chemical Laboratory Diagnostics, Medical University of Graz, Graz 8036, Austria. [3] Synlab Academy, Mannheim 68259, Germany. ; Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim Institute of Public Health, Social and Preventive Medicine, Heidelberg University, Ludolf Krehl Strasse 7-11, Mannheim D-68167, Germany. ; The National Heart, Lung, Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, Massachusetts 01702, USA. ; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Center for Population Studies, The Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, Massachusetts 01702, USA. ; Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. ; Department of Epidemiology, University of Alabama-Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35233, USA. ; Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA. ; School of Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27106, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. ; 1] Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. [2] Carolina Center for Genome Sciences, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. ; Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA. ; University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi 39216, USA. ; Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Department of Medicine, and Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm 171 77, Sweden. ; Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD, UK. ; Merck Sharp &Dohme Corporation, Rahway, New Jersey 08889, USA. ; The Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD, UK. ; 1] The Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD, UK. [2] Department of Statistics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD, UK. ; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20824, USA. ; 1] Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Departments of Medicine, Epidemiology, and Health Services, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. [2] Group Health Research Institute, Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, Washington 98101, USA. ; Section on Cardiology, and Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27106, USA. ; Jackson Heart Study, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson State University, Jackson, Mississippi 39217, USA. ; Center for Public Health Genomics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904, USA. ; 1] Division of Genetic Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. [2] Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, Washington 98105, USA. [3] Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05405, USA. ; Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA. ; Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. ; Cardiovascular Institute, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. ; St Luke's Mid America Heart Institute, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, Missouri 64111, USA. ; 1] Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. [2] Department of Genetics, Washington University in St Louis, Missouri 63130, USA. ; Department of Preventive Medicine and Institute for Genetic Medicine, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA. ; Cardiovascular Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA. ; 1] Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA. [2] Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA. ; Human Genetics Center, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; 1] Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. [2] Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; 1] Department of Clinical Biochemistry KB3011, Section for Molecular Genetics, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospitals and Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 1165, Denmark. [2] Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, 2200 Kobenhavn N, Denmark. ; Center for Statistical Genetics, Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Missouri 48109, USA. ; 1] Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2J, UK. [2] The Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD, UK. ; Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; Department of Cardiology, Parma Hospital, Parma 43100, Italy. ; 1] Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [2] Division of Genetics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; 1] Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. [2] Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25487149" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Age Factors ; Age of Onset ; *Alleles ; Apolipoproteins A/*genetics ; Case-Control Studies ; Cholesterol, LDL/blood ; Coronary Artery Disease/genetics ; Exome/*genetics ; Female ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics ; Genetics, Population ; Heterozygote ; Humans ; Male ; Middle Aged ; Mutation/genetics ; Myocardial Infarction/blood/*genetics ; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.) ; Receptors, LDL/*genetics ; Triglycerides/blood ; United States
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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