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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-11-07
    Description: Dense core vesicles (DCVs) can transmit signals by releasing neuropeptides from specialized synaptic regions called active zones. DCVs reach the active zone by motorized transport through a long axon. A reverse motor frequently interrupts progress by taking DCVs in the opposite direction. "Guided transport" refers to the mechanism by which outward movements ultimately dominate to bring DCVs to the synaptic region. After guided transport, DCVs alter their interactions with motors and enter a "captured" state. The mechanisms of guided transport and capture of DCVs are unknown. Here, we discovered two proteins that contribute to both processes in Caenorhabditis elegans . SAD kinase and a novel conserved protein we named Sentryn are the first proteins found to promote DCV capture. By imaging DCVs moving in various regions of single identified neurons in living animals, we found that DCV guided transport and capture are linked through SAD kinase, Sentryn, and Liprin-α. These proteins act together to regulate DCV motorized transport in a region-specific manner. Between the cell body and the synaptic region, they promote forward transport. In the synaptic region, where all three proteins are highly enriched at active zones, they promote DCV pausing by inhibiting transport in both directions. These three proteins appear to be part of a special subset of active zone-enriched proteins because other active zone proteins do not share their unique functions.
    Print ISSN: 0016-6731
    Topics: Biology
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-01-13
    Description: Retinoblastoma is an aggressive childhood cancer of the developing retina that is initiated by the biallelic loss of RB1. Tumours progress very quickly following RB1 inactivation but the underlying mechanism is not known. Here we show that the retinoblastoma genome is stable, but that multiple cancer pathways can be epigenetically deregulated. To identify the mutations that cooperate with RB1 loss, we performed whole-genome sequencing of retinoblastomas. The overall mutational rate was very low; RB1 was the only known cancer gene mutated. We then evaluated the role of RB1 in genome stability and considered non-genetic mechanisms of cancer pathway deregulation. For example, the proto-oncogene SYK is upregulated in retinoblastoma and is required for tumour cell survival. Targeting SYK with a small-molecule inhibitor induced retinoblastoma tumour cell death in vitro and in vivo. Thus, retinoblastomas may develop quickly as a result of the epigenetic deregulation of key cancer pathways as a direct or indirect result of RB1 loss.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3289956/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3289956/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhang, Jinghui -- Benavente, Claudia A -- McEvoy, Justina -- Flores-Otero, Jacqueline -- Ding, Li -- Chen, Xiang -- Ulyanov, Anatoly -- Wu, Gang -- Wilson, Matthew -- Wang, Jianmin -- Brennan, Rachel -- Rusch, Michael -- Manning, Amity L -- Ma, Jing -- Easton, John -- Shurtleff, Sheila -- Mullighan, Charles -- Pounds, Stanley -- Mukatira, Suraj -- Gupta, Pankaj -- Neale, Geoff -- Zhao, David -- Lu, Charles -- Fulton, Robert S -- Fulton, Lucinda L -- Hong, Xin -- Dooling, David J -- Ochoa, Kerri -- Naeve, Clayton -- Dyson, Nicholas J -- Mardis, Elaine R -- Bahrami, Armita -- Ellison, David -- Wilson, Richard K -- Downing, James R -- Dyer, Michael A -- CA21765/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA64402/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- EY014867/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- EY018599/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- GM81607/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA155202/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY014867/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY014867-02/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY018599/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY018599-03/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Jan 11;481(7381):329-34. doi: 10.1038/nature10733.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22237022" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aneuploidy ; Animals ; Cell Death/drug effects ; Cell Line ; Cell Survival/drug effects ; Chromosomal Instability/genetics ; Epigenesis, Genetic/*genetics ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; Genes, Retinoblastoma/genetics ; *Genomics ; Humans ; Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/antagonists & ; inhibitors/genetics/metabolism ; Mice ; *Molecular Targeted Therapy ; Mutation/genetics ; Protein Kinase Inhibitors/*pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors/genetics/metabolism ; Retinoblastoma/*drug therapy/*genetics/pathology ; Retinoblastoma Protein/deficiency/genetics ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-07-02
    Description: Well-preserved fossils of pivotal early bird and nonavian theropod species have provided unequivocal evidence for feathers and/or downlike integuments. Recent studies have reconstructed color on the basis of melanosome structure; however, the chemistry of these proposed melanosomes has remained unknown. We applied synchrotron x-ray techniques to several fossil and extant organisms, including Confuciusornis sanctus, in order to map and characterize possible chemical residues of melanin pigments. Results show that trace metals, such as copper, are present in fossils as organometallic compounds most likely derived from original eumelanin. The distribution of these compounds provides a long-lived biomarker of melanin presence and density within a range of fossilized organisms. Metal zoning patterns may be preserved long after melanosome structures have been destroyed.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wogelius, R A -- Manning, P L -- Barden, H E -- Edwards, N P -- Webb, S M -- Sellers, W I -- Taylor, K G -- Larson, P L -- Dodson, P -- You, H -- Da-qing, L -- Bergmann, U -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Sep 16;333(6049):1622-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1205748. Epub 2011 Jun 30.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉School of Earth, Atmospheric, and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK. roy.wogelius@manchester.ac.uk〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21719643" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Biomarkers/analysis ; *Birds ; Calcium/analysis ; Copper/*analysis ; Dinosaurs ; Extinction, Biological ; *Feathers/ultrastructure ; *Fossils ; Melanins/*analysis ; Melanosomes/*chemistry ; Microscopy, Electron, Scanning ; Organometallic Compounds/*analysis ; *Pigmentation ; Trace Elements/*analysis ; X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy ; Zinc/analysis
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2012-10-16
    Description: Successful embryogenesis requires proper sorting and compartmentalization of different cell types. Mechanical interactions between cells help govern these processes. In the past, physics-based theories have guided in vitro studies of cell sorting and tissue surface tension. Recent experiments have challenged this approach, indicating that adhesive molecules also act as signaling molecules that initiate local reorganization of actomyosin and demonstrating that cells at the boundary of a colony of initially identical cells become "mechanically polarized." Extending physical models to account for mechanical polarization helps solve a long-standing paradox about magnitudes of tissue surface tensions and potentially explains discrepancies between recent in vivo and in vitro cell-sorting experiments. New experiments are needed to further explore the connection between mechanical polarization and tissue boundary formation in vivo.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Amack, Jeffrey D -- Manning, M Lisa -- R01 HL095690/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL095690/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Oct 12;338(6104):212-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1223953.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, 309 Weiskotten Hall, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA. amackj@upstate.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23066072" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Adhesion ; Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism ; Cell Movement ; *Cell Polarity ; Drosophila/embryology ; Embryo, Nonmammalian/*cytology ; *Embryonic Development ; Xenopus/embryology ; Zebrafish/embryology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: methocarbamol ; haemodialysis ; pharmacokinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary We determined plasma methocarbamol concentrations over 24 h following a 1.5 g methocarbamol dose (off-dialysis day) to 8 chronic haemodialysis patients and compared these results to those from 17 healthy male volunteers. The harmonic mean elimination half-life was similar between the two groups, 1.24 and 1.14 h, respectively. tmax and the weight-adjusted Cmax were 1.1 h and 27.0 mg · m−1 for haemodialysis patients and 1.1 and 23.1 mg · l−1 for normals. Relative systemic availability was assessed by comparing weight-normalized AUC × k10 products. These results indicate no significant differences with respect to methocarbamol absorption, with the relative systemic availability in patients being 113%. These data suggest that absorption and elimination of methocarbamol is similar between normal subjects and patients undergoing maintenance haemodialysis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0843
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Malignant mesothelioma arises in serosal tissues, is locally invasive, and is usually resistant to chemotherapeutic agents used clinically. To determine whether resistance to cytotoxic drugs was an inherent characteristic of mesothelioma cells, we performed in vitro chemosensitivity testing on five fully characterised human malignant mesothelioma cell lines and, for comparison, on three lines representative of clinically drug-resistant solidtissue carcinomas using the MTT (tetrazolium bromide) assay system. Mesothelioma cell lines were intrinsically resistant to eight common antineoplastic drugs, with concentrations that produced a 50% reduction in optical density (IC50 values) for all drugs being equivalent, if not higher, for mesothelioma cell lines as compared with lung and colon carcinoma cell lines. We then investigated the direct anti-mesothelioma activity of recombinant human cytokines with their antineoplastic properties. All five mesothelioma cell lines were resistant to tumour necrosis factor, but they displayed varying degrees of sensitivity to interferons (IFNs). IFNγ directly inhibited the growth of two of five mesothelioma lines. IFNα displayed little activity against four of five mesothelioma lines. The mesothelioma cells that were sensitive to IFNα were resistant to IFNγ, indicating that sensitivity to IFNs is not a genetic characteristic of malignant mesothelioma cells. Significant interactions between cytokines in combination were not observed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Sensing devices designed to detect explosive vapours are bulky, expensive and in need of technological improvement — dogs remain the most effective detectors in the fight against terrorism and in the removal of land-mines. Here we demonstrate the deflagration of trinitrotoluene (TNT) in a ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Keywords: Malignant mesothelioma ; TIL ; CD3 ; TGFß ; Interleukin-6
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive, uniformly fatal serosal tumour, usually associated with asbestos exposure, for which there currently is no effective treatment. In order to gain insight into the mechanism(s) whereby MM might escape immune surveillance, a murine model for MM was used (a) to characterise the tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and macrophages (TIM) phenotypically, (b) to examine systemic immune recognition of MM, and (c) to examine the possible influence of tumour-derived cytokines on systemic and local pathobiological manifestations of MM. A profound down-regulation of lymphocyte surface markers, known to be infolved in T cell activation, was found in TIL. Likewise, although TIM were present in large numbers, their expression of MHC class II antigen and integrins was weak or absent, suggestive of altered functional activity. Significant amounts of cytokines, in particular transforming growth factor β, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1 and tumour necrosis factor were produced during the course of MM tumour development-directly by the MM cells and/or indirectly in response to tumour growth. These factors may contribute both to derangement of antitumour effector mechanisms and to the clinical and pathological manifestations of the disease.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-11-07
    Description: Synaptic vesicles (SVs) transmit signals by releasing neurotransmitters from specialized synaptic regions of neurons. In the synaptic region, SVs are tightly clustered around small structures called active zones. The motor KIF1A transports SVs outward through axons until they are captured in the synaptic region. This transport must be guided in the forward direction because it is opposed by the dynein motor, which causes SVs to reverse direction multiple times en route. The core synapse stability (CSS) system contributes to both guided transport and capture of SVs. We identified Sentryn as a CSS protein that contributes to the synaptic localization of SVs in Caenorhabditis elegans . Like the CSS proteins SAD Kinase and SYD-2 (Liprin-α), Sentryn also prevents dynein-dependent accumulation of lysosomes in dendrites in strains lacking JIP3. Genetic analysis showed that Sentryn and SAD Kinase each have at least one nonoverlapping function for the stable accumulation of SVs at synapses that, when combined with their shared functions, enables most of the functions of SYD-2 (Liprin-α) for capturing SVs. Also like other CSS proteins, Sentryn appears enriched at active zones and contributes to active zone structure, suggesting that it is a novel, conserved active zone protein. Sentryn is recruited to active zones by a process dependent on the active zone-enriched CSS protein SYD-2 (Liprin-α). Our results define a specialized group of active zone enriched proteins that can affect motorized transport throughout the neuron and that have roles in both guided transport and capture of SVs.
    Print ISSN: 0016-6731
    Topics: Biology
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