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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-06-04
    Description: DNA damage activates a signalling network that blocks cell-cycle progression, recruits DNA repair factors and/or triggers senescence or programmed cell death. Alterations in chromatin structure are implicated in the initiation and propagation of the DNA damage response. Here we further investigate the role of chromatin structure in the DNA damage response by monitoring ionizing-radiation-induced signalling and response events with a high-content multiplex RNA-mediated interference screen of chromatin-modifying and -interacting genes. We discover that an isoform of Brd4, a bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) family member, functions as an endogenous inhibitor of DNA damage response signalling by recruiting the condensin II chromatin remodelling complex to acetylated histones through bromodomain interactions. Loss of this isoform results in relaxed chromatin structure, rapid cell-cycle checkpoint recovery and enhanced survival after irradiation, whereas functional gain of this isoform compacted chromatin, attenuated DNA damage response signalling and enhanced radiation-induced lethality. These data implicate Brd4, previously known for its role in transcriptional control, as an insulator of chromatin that can modulate the signalling response to DNA damage.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3683358/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3683358/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Floyd, Scott R -- Pacold, Michael E -- Huang, Qiuying -- Clarke, Scott M -- Lam, Fred C -- Cannell, Ian G -- Bryson, Bryan D -- Rameseder, Jonathan -- Lee, Michael J -- Blake, Emily J -- Fydrych, Anna -- Ho, Richard -- Greenberger, Benjamin A -- Chen, Grace C -- Maffa, Amanda -- Del Rosario, Amanda M -- Root, David E -- Carpenter, Anne E -- Hahn, William C -- Sabatini, David M -- Chen, Clark C -- White, Forest M -- Bradner, James E -- Yaffe, Michael B -- 1-U54-CA112967-04/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- ES-002109/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA014051/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 ES002109/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- P30-CA14051/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 ES015339/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- R01-ES15339/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- R21 CA109661/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R21 NS063917/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R21-NS063917/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- U54 CA112967/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Jun 13;498(7453):246-50. doi: 10.1038/nature12147. Epub 2013 Jun 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23728299" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetylation ; Adenosine Triphosphatases/metabolism ; Cell Cycle Checkpoints/radiation effects ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Survival/radiation effects ; Chromatin/chemistry/*metabolism/radiation effects ; *Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly/radiation effects ; *DNA Damage ; DNA Repair/radiation effects ; DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism ; Histones/chemistry/metabolism ; Humans ; Lysine/chemistry/metabolism ; Multiprotein Complexes/metabolism ; Nuclear Proteins/chemistry/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Phosphorylation/radiation effects ; Positive Transcriptional Elongation Factor B/metabolism ; Protein Isoforms/metabolism ; Radiation, Ionizing ; *Signal Transduction/radiation effects ; Transcription Factors/chemistry/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: BACKGROUND The amount of time available to pathologists with which to perform research is becoming limited due to an increasing manpower shortage in pathology, decreased reimbursement, and increased workload. This is occurring at the same time as demands escalate for pathologists to develop new companion tests, correlate the molecular findings with traditional methods, and assist in the development of individualized medicine. This study examined whether cytotechnologists may be integrated into a research team that uses their expertise in understanding pathology and clinical disease to provide interpretations of experiments that traditionally were performed by pathologists. METHODS Cytotechnologists worked with pathologists to choose blocks for tissue microarrays (TMAs) and to interpret immunohistochemically stained TMA slides. The pathologist met with the cytotechnologist to review the study design. The cytotechnologists reviewed the slides and blocks and chose the most appropriate blocks for the TMA. Either 10% or all of the slides/blocks selected for TMA construction were reviewed by the supervising pathologist. The final selections were given to the TMA technologist to make the TMA. A minimum of 10% of the immunohistochemically stained TMA slides were reviewed by the supervising pathologist. RESULTS A total of 32 TMAs were created with 6 cytotechnologists collaborating with 6 pathologists. Immunohistochemical stains of 190 TMAs were interpreted by 4 cytotechnologists collaborating with 3 pathologists. All the TMAs and TMA interpretation data were used successfully for the research for which they were designed. CONCLUSIONS The collaboration of cytotechnologists and pathologists in research can improve the quality of effort and increase satisfaction and productivity. Cancer Cytopathol 2018. © 2018 American Cancer Society.
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of The American Cancer Society.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-8280
    Keywords: juvenile chronic arthritis ; interferon gamma ; biological response modifiers
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Recombinant interferon (IFN) gamma was used in 10 patients,6 to 15 years old, with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) for5 to 11 years, resistant or with severe side effects toother treatments. Six patients had systemic JCA and 4started as pauciarticular. Three of the latterbecame polyarticular. Treatment schedule was 50000 IU–kg daily for 4 weeks, then 3 times per week for 3 months andtwice a week up to 2 years. Eight cases had favourableclinical response. Prolonged steroid regime could besuspended in 7/8 cases who previously received it. Twopatients with systemic JCA did not respond to IFNtreatment. Side effects were fever (9), headache (8),chills (6), distal cyanosis, hypotension, leukopenia andmyalgia (2), and vomiting (1). All were mild or moderate. IFN gamma was more tolerable than other drugs and seems to be beneficial for patients with JCA resistant to other treatments.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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