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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: spermatozoa ; spermatogenesis ; Oligochaeta ; phylogeny ; Lumbriculidae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Spermiohistogenesis and spermatozoal morphology of the lumbriculid Bythonomus lemani have been investigated by means of electron microscopy. Though spermiohistogenetic events follow the general microdrile pattern, some features are peculiar: chromatin is clumped in the first stages and its condensation is very irregular, as in Eisenia. Manchette geometry is similar to that of hirudineans, as the microtubules are helically arranged from the very early stages. A number of mitochondria are always present in the collar region. The mature sperm also departs from the microdrile model and is more similar to the megadrile one in (1) the strong withdrawal of the base of the acrosome vesicle into the acrosome tube; (2) the apparent development of rudimentary connectives. On the other hand, some features seem to be unique among oligochaetes, including the inclined longitudinal axis of the axial rod and tilted anterior end of the nucleus. Spermatologically, lumbriculids may be interpreted as advanced microdriles which may be descended from a stock which also gave rise to Haplotaxidae, Moniligastridae, and the true Opisthopores.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-06-13
    Description: The contribution of gene expression changes to the adverse and therapeutic effects of β 2 -adrenoceptor agonists in asthma was investigated using human airway epithelial cells as a therapeutically relevant target. Operational model-fitting established that the long-acting β 2 -adrenoceptor agonists (LABA) indacaterol, salmeterol, formoterol, and picumeterol were full agonists on BEAS-2B cells transfected with a cAMP-response element reporter but differed in efficacy (indacaterol ≥ formoterol 〉 salmeterol ≥ picumeterol). The transcriptomic signature of indacaterol in BEAS-2B cells identified 180, 368, 252, and 10 genes that were differentially expressed (〉1.5- to 〈0.67-fold) after 1-, 2-, 6-, and 18-hour of exposure, respectively. Many upregulated genes (e.g., AREG , BDNF , CCL20 , CXCL2 , EDN1 , IL6 , IL15 , IL20 ) encode proteins with proinflammatory activity and are annotated by several, enriched gene ontology (GO) terms, including cellular response to interleukin-1 , cytokine activity , and positive regulation of neutrophil chemotaxis . The general enriched GO term extracellular space was also associated with indacaterol-induced genes, and many of those, including CRISPLD2 , DMBT1 , GAS1, and SOCS3, have putative anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and/or antiviral activity. Numerous indacaterol-regulated genes were also induced or repressed in BEAS-2B cells and human primary bronchial epithelial cells by the low efficacy LABA salmeterol, indicating that this genomic effect was neither unique to indacaterol nor restricted to the BEAS-2B airway epithelial cell line. Collectively, these data suggest that the consequences of inhaling a β 2 -adrenoceptor agonist may be complex and involve widespread changes in gene expression. We propose that this genomic effect represents a generally unappreciated mechanism that may contribute to the adverse and therapeutic actions of β 2 -adrenoceptor agonists in asthma.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3565
    Electronic ISSN: 1521-0103
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-04-27
    Description: Secondary bacterial pneumonia leads to increased morbidity and mortality from influenza virus infections. What causes this increased susceptibility, however, is not well defined. Host defense from infection relies not only on immune resistance mechanisms but also on the ability to tolerate a given level of pathogen burden. Failure of either resistance or tolerance can contribute to disease severity, making it hard to distinguish their relative contribution. We employ a coinfection mouse model of influenza virus and Legionella pneumophila in which we can separate resistance and tolerance. We demonstrate that influenza virus can promote susceptibility to lethal bacterial coinfection, even when bacterial infection is controlled by the immune system. We propose that this failure of host defense is due to impaired ability to tolerate tissue damage.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3933032/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3933032/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jamieson, Amanda M -- Pasman, Lesley -- Yu, Shuang -- Gamradt, Pia -- Homer, Robert J -- Decker, Thomas -- Medzhitov, Ruslan -- AI R01 055502/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 046688/PHS HHS/ -- R01 AI046688/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI055502/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Jun 7;340(6137):1230-4. doi: 10.1126/science.1233632. Epub 2013 Apr 25.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. amanda_jamieson@brown.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23618765" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Caspase 1 ; Coinfection/*immunology/pathology ; Disease Models, Animal ; Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology ; Interleukin-1beta/metabolism ; *Legionella pneumophila ; Legionnaires' Disease/*immunology/pathology ; Lung/microbiology/pathology/virology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; *Orthomyxoviridae ; Orthomyxoviridae Infections/*immunology/pathology ; Pneumonia, Bacterial/*immunology/pathology ; Toll-Like Receptor 2/metabolism ; Toll-Like Receptor 3/metabolism ; Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism ; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-02-21
    Description: Tumour metastasis is the primary cause of mortality in cancer patients and remains the key challenge for cancer therapy. New therapeutic approaches to block inhibitory pathways of the immune system have renewed hopes for the utility of such therapies. Here we show that genetic deletion of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b (casitas B-lineage lymphoma-b) or targeted inactivation of its E3 ligase activity licenses natural killer (NK) cells to spontaneously reject metastatic tumours. The TAM tyrosine kinase receptors Tyro3, Axl and Mer (also known as Mertk) were identified as ubiquitylation substrates for Cbl-b. Treatment of wild-type NK cells with a newly developed small molecule TAM kinase inhibitor conferred therapeutic potential, efficiently enhancing anti-metastatic NK cell activity in vivo. Oral or intraperitoneal administration using this TAM inhibitor markedly reduced murine mammary cancer and melanoma metastases dependent on NK cells. We further report that the anticoagulant warfarin exerts anti-metastatic activity in mice via Cbl-b/TAM receptors in NK cells, providing a molecular explanation for a 50-year-old puzzle in cancer biology. This novel TAM/Cbl-b inhibitory pathway shows that it might be possible to develop a 'pill' that awakens the innate immune system to kill cancer metastases.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Paolino, Magdalena -- Choidas, Axel -- Wallner, Stephanie -- Pranjic, Blanka -- Uribesalgo, Iris -- Loeser, Stefanie -- Jamieson, Amanda M -- Langdon, Wallace Y -- Ikeda, Fumiyo -- Fededa, Juan Pablo -- Cronin, Shane J -- Nitsch, Roberto -- Schultz-Fademrecht, Carsten -- Eickhoff, Jan -- Menninger, Sascha -- Unger, Anke -- Torka, Robert -- Gruber, Thomas -- Hinterleitner, Reinhard -- Baier, Gottfried -- Wolf, Dominik -- Ullrich, Axel -- Klebl, Bert M -- Penninger, Josef M -- W 1101/Austrian Science Fund FWF/Austria -- England -- Nature. 2014 Mar 27;507(7493):508-12. doi: 10.1038/nature12998. Epub 2014 Feb 19.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉IMBA, Institute of Molecular Biotechnology of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1030 Vienna, Austria. ; Lead Discovery Center GmbH, D-44227 Dortmund, Germany. ; Medical University Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria. ; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, USA. ; School of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Perth, Australia. ; Max-Planck, Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Molecular Biology, D-82152 Martinsried, Germany. ; 1] Medical University Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria [2] Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Bonn, 53127 Bonn, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24553136" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Animals ; Anticoagulants/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Female ; Killer Cells, Natural/drug effects/*immunology/metabolism ; Male ; Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental/drug therapy/genetics/immunology/*pathology ; Melanoma, Experimental/drug therapy/genetics/immunology/*pathology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred BALB C ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Neoplasm Metastasis/drug therapy/*immunology/prevention & control ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-cbl/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors/*metabolism ; Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Ubiquitination ; Warfarin/pharmacology/therapeutic use
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1520-510X
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    College Park, Md. : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 97 (1992), S. 1787-1792 
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The predissociation linewidths and level shifts of vibrational levels of three oxygen isotopic molecules 16O2, 16O18O, and 18O2 arising from the interactions of the B 3Σ−u state with the four repulsive states 5Πu, 3Σ+u, 3Πu, and 1Πu, have been calculated. A set of parameters characterizing these interactions has been determined. Good agreement between calculated and experimental predissociation widths and shifts has been obtained for all the three isotopic molecules.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: urapidil ; volunteers isoproterenol dose response analysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Urapidil is an antihypertensive vasodilator agent whose pharmacological action in man has not yet been fully defined. We have assessed the beta blocking activity of urapidil 15 mg and 30 mg i.v. in a single blind study of 10 healthy male volunteers. Urapidil at plasma concentrations in the same range as those shown to have antihypertensive affect did not significantly attenuate the chronotropic effect of isoproterenol. Propranolol 5 mg iv, the positive control, significantly shifted the isoproterenol dose-response curve to the right. We describe a new method of analyzing incomplete dose response curves whereby a linear terminal segment can be reproducibly defined.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Intensive care medicine 2 (1976), S. 59-59 
    ISSN: 1432-1238
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: “Row nucleated lamellar” structures are formed when highly crystalline polymers are melt-extruded and recrystallized under high stress. Polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) films with row lamellar structures have been utilized to produce microporous membranes. Birefringence measurements of melt-extruded PE films show that improved film orientation can be achieved by annealing, extruding at higher speed, and using higher molecular weight polymers. Images from scanning tunneling, atomic force, and field emission scanning electron microscopy (STM, AFM, and FESEM) clearly show the lamellar structures in the melt-extruded PE and PP films. Microscopy results also show that surface lamellar textures are more pronounced with thicker lamellae and are better aligned along the extrusion direction after annealing. X-ray diffraction results show that the increase in film orientation can be attributed to increased lamellar perfection and orientation during annealing and also to better crystallite alignment along the machine direction with higher extrusion speed or with higher molecular weight. High-resolution capabilities of STM, AFM, and FESEM prove to be very effective tools in elucidating lamellar structures in polymeric membrane precursors and can be used as an aid in establishing structure-process-property relationships in making microporous membranes. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 8 (1943), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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