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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-02-07
    Description: Vaccines prevent infectious disease largely by inducing protective neutralizing antibodies against vulnerable epitopes. Several major pathogens have resisted traditional vaccine development, although vulnerable epitopes targeted by neutralizing antibodies have been identified for several such cases. Hence, new vaccine design methods to induce epitope-specific neutralizing antibodies are needed. Here we show, with a neutralization epitope from respiratory syncytial virus, that computational protein design can generate small, thermally and conformationally stable protein scaffolds that accurately mimic the viral epitope structure and induce potent neutralizing antibodies. These scaffolds represent promising leads for the research and development of a human respiratory syncytial virus vaccine needed to protect infants, young children and the elderly. More generally, the results provide proof of principle for epitope-focused and scaffold-based vaccine design, and encourage the evaluation and further development of these strategies for a variety of other vaccine targets, including antigenically highly variable pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus and influenza.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4260937/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4260937/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Correia, Bruno E -- Bates, John T -- Loomis, Rebecca J -- Baneyx, Gretchen -- Carrico, Chris -- Jardine, Joseph G -- Rupert, Peter -- Correnti, Colin -- Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr -- Vittal, Vinayak -- Connell, Mary J -- Stevens, Eric -- Schroeter, Alexandria -- Chen, Man -- Macpherson, Skye -- Serra, Andreia M -- Adachi, Yumiko -- Holmes, Margaret A -- Li, Yuxing -- Klevit, Rachel E -- Graham, Barney S -- Wyatt, Richard T -- Baker, David -- Strong, Roland K -- Crowe, James E Jr -- Johnson, Philip R -- Schief, William R -- 1R01AI102766-01A1/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- 1UM1AI100663/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- 2T32GM007270/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- 5R21AI088554/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P01 AI094419/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P01AI094419/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P30 AI036214/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P30 AI045008/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P30AI36214/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI102766/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R21 AI088554/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32 CA080416/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007270/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32CA080416/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U54 AI 005714/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U54 AI057141/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- UM1 AI100663/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Mar 13;507(7491):201-6. doi: 10.1038/nature12966. Epub 2014 Feb 5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA [2] PhD Program in Computational Biology, Instituto Gulbenkian Ciencia and Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras 2780-157, Portugal [3] Department of Chemical Physiology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; The Vanderbilt Vaccine Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA. ; The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Research Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109-1024, USA. ; 1] Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA [2] Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA [3] IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA [4] Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; 1] Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA [2] IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA [3] Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; 1] Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109-1024, USA [2]. ; 1] Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA [2] IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA [3] Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; 1] The Vanderbilt Vaccine Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA [2] Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA [3] Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24499818" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Motifs ; Animals ; Antibodies, Monoclonal/analysis/immunology ; Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis/immunology ; Antibodies, Viral/analysis/immunology ; Antigens, Viral/chemistry/immunology ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; *Drug Design ; Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay ; Epitopes/*chemistry/*immunology ; Macaca mulatta/immunology ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred BALB C ; Models, Molecular ; Neutralization Tests ; Protein Conformation ; *Protein Stability ; Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/*chemistry/*immunology ; Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/chemistry/immunology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-09-08
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 2992: Development of Potentiometric Sensors for C2H4 Detection Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18092992 Authors: Fidel Toldra-Reig Jose M. Serra Gas exhaust emissions in vehicles are increasingly restrictive in EU and USA. Diesel engines are particularly affected by limitation in hydrocarbons and NOx concentrations. This work presents a screening of working electrode materials to develop a potentiometric sensor, with the most promising material to detect being C2H4 at 550 °C. The device consists of a dense 8YSZ (8 mol% Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2) disk as oxide-ion conducting electrolyte, whereas platinum is screen-printed in the back face as reference electrode. As working electrode, several materials such as Fe0.7Cr1.3O3, ZnCr2O4, Fe2NiO4, La0.8Sr0.2CrO3−δ (LSC), La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 (LSM), and NiO+5%wt Au were tested to detect C2H4. Sensor voltage was measured for several concentrations of C2H4 and CO as these are two of the major oxidizable compounds in a diesel exhaust gas. Fe0.7Cr1.3O3 was selected as the most promising material because of its response to C2H4 and CO. Not only is the response to the individual analytes important, but the C2H4 cross-sensitivity toward CO is also important. Fe0.7Cr1.3O3 showed a good performance to C2H4, with low cross-sensitivity to CO. In addition, when 0.16 ppm of phenanthrene is added, the sensor still has a slightly better response to C2H4 than to CO. Nevertheless, the sensor exposure to high concentrations (>85 ppm) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons led to signal saturation. On the other hand, the operation in wet conditions induces lower sensor sensitivity to C2H4 and higher cross-sensitivity toward CO increase, i.e., the sensor response becomes similar for C2H4 and CO.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0223-5234
    Keywords: 1,2,3,3a-tetrahydropyrrolo[2,1-b]benzothiazol-1-ones ; 3,4,5,6,7,7a-hexahydro-2H-pyrrolo[2,1-b]thiazol-5-ones ; [^3H]flunitrazepam ; [^3H]muscimol ; [^3^5S]TBPS ; anticonvulsant activity ; stability study
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 17 (1989), S. 409-415 
    ISSN: 0305-1978
    Keywords: Brachionidae ; Brachionus plicatilis ; Rotifera ; electrophoresis ; geographic variation ; rotifers ; systematics ; temporal variation ; total protein
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0305-0491
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary.  The 3a protein encoded by RNA 3 of cucumber mosaic virus has been identified as the viral cell-to-cell movement protein. The constitutive expression in transgenic tobacco plants of 3a protein from a subgroup I strain was able to complement in trans the short distance movement of a 3a defective CMV mutant belonging to a different taxonomic subgroup. This ability was dependent upon the accumulation levels of the 3a protein in transgenic tobacco plants. However, an initial delay in viral accumulation and spread of the defective virus as compared to the wild type virus was determined in complementation tests. Furthermore, a reduction in disease symptoms as well as a different pattern of systemic viral distribution from those of the wild type virus was detected. These results show that the early events in viral infection affect the long distance spread of the virus. Finally, the wild type virus moved faster in the 3a protein-expressing plants than in control plants, thus indicating that the constitutive expression of the 3a protein favours long-distance viral spread.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The nucleotide sequence of the coat protein genes and 3′ non-coding regions of two different resistance-breaking tobamoviruses in pepper have been determined. The deduced coat protein of an Italian isolate of pepper mild mottle virus (PMMV-I) consists of 156 amino acids and its 3′ non-coding region is 198 nucleotides long. They have been found to be very similar in sequence and structure to those previously reported for a Spanish isolate (PMMV-S). In contrast, a Dutch isolate termed P 11 codes for a coat protein of 160 amino acids and its 3′ non-coding region is 291 nucleotides long, which may have arisen by duplication. The nucleotide and the predicted coat protein amino acid sequence analysis show that this isolate should be considered as a new virus within the tobamovirus group. The term paprika mild mottle virus (PaMMV) is proposed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The complete nucleotide sequence of RNA 3 of a Spanish isolate of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV-24) has been determined. The encoded putative cell-to-cell movement protein (3a protein) and the coat protein are 279 and 218 amino acids long, respectively. The 3a protein was expressed inEscherichia coli using the vector pT7-7 and was used to raise an immunoserum. We have followed the time course of accumulation of the 3a protein, in parallel to that of the coat protein, and its subcellular localization as a function of time after CMV-24 infection on tobacco plants. The maximum accumulation level of the 3a protein was reached at early stages of infection, being detected in the cytosolic and the cell wall fractions. At later stages of infection, a decline in accumulation levels of the 3a protein was observed, and the protein was essentially associated with the cell wall fractions. These data were corroborated by immunocyto-chemistry performed in both infected and 3a-expressing transgenic tobacco plants.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0392-6737
    Keywords: Conductivity phenomena in semiconductors and insulators
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Riassunto Si studia il legame chimico nella serie dei semiconduttori mancanti di elettroni Mg2X, dove X=Si, Ge e Sn, con il metodo dello pseudopotenziale autocoerente nello schema del funzionale densità locale. Le proprietà fisiche dei composti in esame sono studiate utilizzando potenziali atomici che permettono di evidenziarne le caratteristiche di periodicità. Il carattere ionico di questi materiali è correlato all'elettronegatività degli anioni. I nostri risultati, in buon accordo con l'esperimento, sono discussi in modo da spiegare il comportamento molecolare degli stati di conduzione.
    Notes: Summary The chemical bond in the electron-deficient semiconductor series Mg2X (X=Si, Ge, Sn) is analysed in the pseudopotential self-consistent local-density scheme. Hard-core atomic potentials are used to investigate the physical properties of these compounds and to show the regularities peculiar to the periodic table. The ionic character of these materials is studied and related to the scaling electronegativities of their anions. Our results, in good agreement with the experiment, are discussed in order to explain the molecular behaviour of the bonding conduction states.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0392-6737
    Keywords: Nonlocalized single-particle electronic states
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Riassunto Le anomale riduzioni del gap di energia nei semiconduttori a struttura calcopirite rispetto ai loro analoghi binari sono stimate quantitativamente usando una semplice relazione che implica l’uso della scala delle elettronegatività e il numero quantico principale medio. Il contributo chimico e strutturale a questa anomalia è discusso ed è mostrato che la relazione può essere agevolmente estesa per spiegare la variazione del gap in alcune soluzioni solide.
    Abstract: Резюме Количественно оцениваются аномальные уменьшения ширины запрещенной зоны в полупроводниках халькопирита, по сравнению с бинарными аналогами. Подробно обсуждается химичекий и структурный вклад в эту аномалию. Показывается, что предложенный подход можно легко обобщить для объяснения изменения ширины запрещенной зоны в некоторых кросс-замещенных сплавах.
    Notes: Summary The anomalous reductions in the energy band gap of the chalcopyrite semiconductors as compared to their relative binary analogs are estimated quantitatively by using a simple relation that involves quantum defect electronegativity scale and the average principal quantum number. The chemical and the structural contribution to this anomaly is discussed in details and it is shown that the relation can be easily extended to explain the variation in the band gap of some cross-substitutional alloys.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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