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  • 1
    Keywords: CDNA ; CLONES ; BIOLOGY ; alternative splicing ; CDNAS ; ASSEMBLIES ; assembly ; ANNOTATION ; COMPLETE GENOM
    Abstract: The human genome sequence defines our inherent biological potential; the realization of the biology encoded therein requires knowledge of the function of each gene. Currently, our knowledge in this area is still limited. Several lines of investigation have been used to elucidate the structure and function of the genes in the human genome. Even so, gene prediction remains a difficult task, as the varieties of transcripts of a gene may vary to a great extent. We thus performed an exhaustive integrative characterization of 41,118 full-length cDNAs that capture the gene transcripts as complete functional cassettes, providing an unequivocal report of structural and functional diversity at the gene level. Our international collaboration has validated 21,037 human gene candidates by analysis of high-quality full-length cDNA clones through curation using unified criteria. This led to the identification of 5,155 new gene candidates. It also manifested the most reliable way to control the quality of the cDNA clones. We have developed a human gene database, called the H-Invitational Database (H-InvDB; http://www.h-invitational.jp/). It provides the following: integrative annotation of human genes, description of gene structures, details of novel alternative splicing isoforms, non-protein-coding RNAs, functional domains, subcellular localizations, metabolic pathways, predictions of protein three-dimensional structure, mapping of known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), identification of polymorphic microsatellite repeats within human genes, and comparative results with mouse full-length cDNAs. The H-InvDB analysis has shown that up to 4% of the human genome sequence (National Center for Biotechnology Information build 34 assembly) may contain misassembled or missing regions. We found that 6.5% of the human gene candidates (1,377 loci) did not have a good protein-coding open reading frame, of which 296 loci are strong candidates for nonprotein-coding RNA genes. In addition, among 72,027 uniquely mapped SNPs and insertions/deletions localized within human genes, 13,215 nonsynonymous SNPs, 315 nonsense SNPs, and 452 indels occurred in coding regions. Together with 25 polymorphic microsatellite repeats present in coding regions, they may alter protein structure, causing phenotypic effects or resulting in disease. The H-InvDB platform represents a substantial contribution to resources needed for the exploration of human biology and pathology
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15103394
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-04-24
    Description: High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a non-histone DNA-binding protein that is secreted into the extracellular milieu in response to inflammatory stimuli. The secreted HMGB1 mediates various inflammatory diseases, including periodontitis; however, the underlying mechanisms of HMGB1-induced periodontal inflammation are not completely understood. Here, we examined whether anti-HMGB1 neutralizing antibody inhibits periodontal progression and investigated the molecular pathology of HMGB1 in vitro and in vivo. In vitro analysis indicated that HMGB1, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were secreted in response to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) stimuli in human gingival epithelial cells (HGECs) and human monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1) treated with phorbol myristate acetate. Increased levels of GM-CSF and IL-1β were observed in the conditioned media from TNF-α-stimulated HGECs and THP-1 in vitro . Simultaneous stimulation with TNF-α and anti-HMGB1 antibody significantly decreased TNF-α-induced inflammatory cytokine secretion. Experimental periodontitis was induced in mice using Porphyromonas gingivalis -soaked ligatures. The extracellular translocation was confirmed in gingival epithelia in the periodontitis model mice by immunofluorescence analysis. Systemic administration of anti-HMGB1 neutralizing antibody significantly inhibited translocation of HMGB1. The anti-HMGB1 antibody inhibited periodontal inflammation, expression of IL-1β and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1), migration of neutrophils, and bone resorption, shown by bioluminescence imaging of myeloperoxidase activity, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), and micro-computed tomography analysis. These findings indicate that HMGB1 is secreted in response to inflammatory stimuli caused by periodontal infection, which is crucial for the initiation of periodontitis, and the anti-HMGB1 antibody attenuates the secretion of a series of inflammatory cytokines, consequently suppressing the progression of periodontitis.
    Print ISSN: 0019-9567
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5522
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-03-29
    Description: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry into host cells is a multistep process requiring various host factors, including the tight junction protein occludin (OCLN), which has been shown to be essential for HCV infection in in vitro cell culture systems. However, it remains unclear whether OCLN is an effective and safe target for HCV therapy, owing to the lack of binders that can recognize the intact extracellular loop domains of OCLN and prevent HCV infection. In this study, we successfully generated four rat anti-OCLN monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) by the genetic immunization method and unique cell differential screening. These four MAbs bound to human OCLN with a very high affinity (antibody dissociation constant of 〈1 nM). One MAb recognized the second loop of human and mouse OCLN, whereas the three other MAbs recognized the first loop of human OCLN. All MAbs inhibited HCV infection in Huh7.5.1-8 cells in a dose-dependent manner without apparent cytotoxicity. Additionally, the anti-OCLN MAbs prevented both cell-free HCV infection and cell-to-cell HCV transmission. Kinetic studies with anti-OCLN and anti-claudin-1 (CLDN1) MAbs demonstrated that OCLN interacts with HCV after CLDN1 in the internalization step. Two selected MAbs completely inhibited HCV infection in human liver chimeric mice without apparent adverse effects. Therefore, OCLN would be an appropriate host target for anti-HCV entry inhibitors, and anti-OCLN MAbs may be promising candidates for novel anti-HCV agents, particularly in combination with direct-acting HCV antiviral agents. IMPORTANCE HCV entry into host cells is thought to be a very complex process involving various host entry factors, such as the tight junction proteins claudin-1 and OCLN. In this study, we developed novel functional MAbs that recognize intact extracellular domains of OCLN, which is essential for HCV entry into host cells. The established MAbs against OCLN, which had very high affinity and selectivity for intact OCLN, strongly inhibited HCV infection both in vitro and in vivo . Using these anti-OCLN MAbs, we found that OCLN is necessary for the later stages of HCV entry. These anti-OCLN MAbs are likely to be very useful for understanding the OCLN-mediated HCV entry mechanism and might be promising candidates for novel HCV entry inhibitors.
    Print ISSN: 0022-538X
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5514
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-05-02
    Description: Introduction: Although aspirin/NSAIDs may have potential preventive effects on several cancers, it remains unclear on gastric cancer. The purpose of this study is to compare the risk of developing gastric cancer and the histologic changes of intestinal metaplasia and neutrophil infiltration, between aspirin/NSAID users and nonusers. Methods: Using an electronic endoscopy database in two hospitals from 1996 to 2017, we analyzed the data from patients with chronic gastritis who received aspirin or NSAIDs prior to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. One-to-one propensity score matching was performed to compare the proportion of gastric cancer, intestinal metaplasia, and neutrophil infiltration between these drug users and nonusers. Results: We analyzed 2,082 aspirin users and 2,082 nonusers as well as 898 NSAID users and 898 nonusers. Six diffuse-type and 19 intestinal-type gastric cancer, 1,243 intestinal metaplasia, and 1,503 neutrophil infiltration patients were identified. The proportion of diffuse-type gastric cancer (0.05%) was 80% lower in aspirin users compared with the nonusers (0.24%), and there was no case of diffuse-type cancer in patients who took aspirin for more than 2 years. In contrast, intestinal-type gastric cancer incidence was significantly higher in aspirin users (0.72%) compared with nonusers (0.14%). No significant differences in the incidence of gastric cancer were found between NSAID use and nonusers. NSAID use was significantly associated with decreased proportion of neutrophil infiltration compared with nonusers. Conclusion: Aspirin may have distinct effects between intestinal-type and diffuse-type gastric cancer development. Cancer Prev Res; 11(5); 279–86. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1940-6207
    Electronic ISSN: 1940-6215
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-05-01
    Description: Background/Aim: The use of single-port surgery (SPS) in elderly patients with colon cancer remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of elderly patients who underwent SPS. Patients and Methods: Consecutive patients 〉80 years old of age who underwent SPS (n=86) or multi-port surgery (MPS) (n=40) for colon cancer from January 2008 to December 2014 were analyzed. Short-term and long-term outcomes were compared between groups. Results: The morbidity rate in the SPS was significantly lower than that in the MPS (p=0.027). Length of hospital stay in the SPS was significantly shorter than that in the MPS (p=0.016). Similar oncological outcomes were observed in the groups. The 3-year disease-free survival rate, the 5-year overall survival rate and the 5-year cancer-specific survival rate did not differ significantly between groups. Conclusion: SPS is safe and can provide clinical outcomes comparable to those of MPS in octogenarians with colon cancer.
    Print ISSN: 0250-7005
    Electronic ISSN: 1791-7530
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-02-24
    Description: A valence critical end point existing near the absolute zero provides a unique case for the study of a quantum version of the strong density fluctuation at the Widom line in the supercritical fluids. Although singular charge and orbital dynamics are suggested theoretically to alter the electronic structure significantly, breaking down the standard quasi-particle picture, this has never been confirmed experimentally to date. We provide the first empirical evidence that the proximity to quantum valence criticality leads to a clear breakdown of Fermi liquid behavior. Our detailed study of the mixed valence compound α-YbAlB 4 reveals that a small chemical substitution induces a sharp valence crossover, accompanied by a pronounced non–Fermi liquid behavior characterized by a divergent effective mass and unusual T / B scaling in the magnetization.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2012-03-13
    Description: Many bacterial pathogens can enter various host cells and then survive intracellularly, transiently evade humoral immunity, and further disseminate to other cells and tissues. When bacteria enter host cells and replicate intracellularly, the host cells sense the invading bacteria as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by way of various pattern recognition receptors. As a result, the host cells induce alarm signals that activate the innate immune system. Therefore, bacteria must modulate host inflammatory signalling and dampen these alarm signals. How pathogens do this after invading epithelial cells remains unclear, however. Here we show that OspI, a Shigella flexneri effector encoded by ORF169b on the large plasmid and delivered by the type IotaIotaIota secretion system, dampens acute inflammatory responses during bacterial invasion by suppressing the tumour-necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6)-mediated signalling pathway. OspI is a glutamine deamidase that selectively deamidates the glutamine residue at position 100 in UBC13 to a glutamic acid residue. Consequently, the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating activity required for TRAF6 activation is inhibited, allowing S. flexneri OspI to modulate the diacylglycerol-CBM (CARD-BCL10-MALT1) complex-TRAF6-nuclear-factor-kappaB signalling pathway. We determined the 2.0 A crystal structure of OspI, which contains a putative cysteine-histidine-aspartic acid catalytic triad. A mutational analysis showed this catalytic triad to be essential for the deamidation of UBC13. Our results suggest that S. flexneri inhibits acute inflammatory responses in the initial stage of infection by targeting the UBC13-TRAF6 complex.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sanada, Takahito -- Kim, Minsoo -- Mimuro, Hitomi -- Suzuki, Masato -- Ogawa, Michinaga -- Oyama, Akiho -- Ashida, Hiroshi -- Kobayashi, Taira -- Koyama, Tomohiro -- Nagai, Shinya -- Shibata, Yuri -- Gohda, Jin -- Inoue, Jun-ichiro -- Mizushima, Tsunehiro -- Sasakawa, Chihiro -- England -- Nature. 2012 Mar 11;483(7391):623-6. doi: 10.1038/nature10894.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Infectious Disease Control, International Research Center for Infectious Diseases, University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22407319" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism ; Amidohydrolases/*chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Aspartic Acid/metabolism ; Biocatalysis ; Caspases/metabolism ; Catalytic Domain/genetics ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Cysteine/metabolism ; DNA Mutational Analysis ; Diglycerides/antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Dysentery, Bacillary/microbiology ; Glutamic Acid/metabolism ; Glutamine/metabolism ; HEK293 Cells ; HeLa Cells ; Histidine/metabolism ; Humans ; Immunity, Innate ; Inflammation/enzymology/*immunology/*metabolism ; Mice ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; NF-kappa B/metabolism ; Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism ; Shigella flexneri/*enzymology/genetics/*immunology/pathogenicity ; TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6/deficiency/genetics/metabolism ; Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Virulence Factors/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-03-29
    Description: Regulated transcription controls the diversity, developmental pathways and spatial organization of the hundreds of cell types that make up a mammal. Using single-molecule cDNA sequencing, we mapped transcription start sites (TSSs) and their usage in human and mouse primary cells, cell lines and tissues to produce a comprehensive overview of mammalian gene expression across the human body. We find that few genes are truly 'housekeeping', whereas many mammalian promoters are composite entities composed of several closely separated TSSs, with independent cell-type-specific expression profiles. TSSs specific to different cell types evolve at different rates, whereas promoters of broadly expressed genes are the most conserved. Promoter-based expression analysis reveals key transcription factors defining cell states and links them to binding-site motifs. The functions of identified novel transcripts can be predicted by coexpression and sample ontology enrichment analyses. The functional annotation of the mammalian genome 5 (FANTOM5) project provides comprehensive expression profiles and functional annotation of mammalian cell-type-specific transcriptomes with wide applications in biomedical research.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4529748/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4529748/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉FANTOM Consortium and the RIKEN PMI and CLST (DGT) -- Forrest, Alistair R R -- Kawaji, Hideya -- Rehli, Michael -- Baillie, J Kenneth -- de Hoon, Michiel J L -- Haberle, Vanja -- Lassmann, Timo -- Kulakovskiy, Ivan V -- Lizio, Marina -- Itoh, Masayoshi -- Andersson, Robin -- Mungall, Christopher J -- Meehan, Terrence F -- Schmeier, Sebastian -- Bertin, Nicolas -- Jorgensen, Mette -- Dimont, Emmanuel -- Arner, Erik -- Schmidl, Christian -- Schaefer, Ulf -- Medvedeva, Yulia A -- Plessy, Charles -- Vitezic, Morana -- Severin, Jessica -- Semple, Colin A -- Ishizu, Yuri -- Young, Robert S -- Francescatto, Margherita -- Alam, Intikhab -- Albanese, Davide -- Altschuler, Gabriel M -- Arakawa, Takahiro -- Archer, John A C -- Arner, Peter -- Babina, Magda -- Rennie, Sarah -- Balwierz, Piotr J -- Beckhouse, Anthony G -- Pradhan-Bhatt, Swati -- Blake, Judith A -- Blumenthal, Antje -- Bodega, Beatrice -- Bonetti, Alessandro -- Briggs, James -- Brombacher, Frank -- Burroughs, A Maxwell -- Califano, Andrea -- Cannistraci, Carlo V -- Carbajo, Daniel -- Chen, Yun -- Chierici, Marco -- Ciani, Yari -- Clevers, Hans C -- Dalla, Emiliano -- Davis, Carrie A -- Detmar, Michael -- Diehl, Alexander D -- Dohi, Taeko -- Drablos, Finn -- Edge, Albert S B -- Edinger, Matthias -- Ekwall, Karl -- Endoh, Mitsuhiro -- Enomoto, Hideki -- Fagiolini, Michela -- Fairbairn, Lynsey -- Fang, Hai -- Farach-Carson, Mary C -- Faulkner, Geoffrey J -- Favorov, Alexander V -- Fisher, Malcolm E -- Frith, Martin C -- Fujita, Rie -- Fukuda, Shiro -- Furlanello, Cesare -- Furino, Masaaki -- Furusawa, Jun-ichi -- Geijtenbeek, Teunis B -- Gibson, Andrew P -- Gingeras, Thomas -- Goldowitz, Daniel -- Gough, Julian -- Guhl, Sven -- Guler, Reto -- Gustincich, Stefano -- Ha, Thomas J -- Hamaguchi, Masahide -- Hara, Mitsuko -- Harbers, Matthias -- Harshbarger, Jayson -- Hasegawa, Akira -- Hasegawa, Yuki -- Hashimoto, Takehiro -- Herlyn, Meenhard -- Hitchens, Kelly J -- Ho Sui, Shannan J -- Hofmann, Oliver M -- Hoof, Ilka -- Hori, Furni -- Huminiecki, Lukasz -- Iida, Kei -- Ikawa, Tomokatsu -- Jankovic, Boris R -- Jia, Hui -- Joshi, Anagha -- Jurman, Giuseppe -- Kaczkowski, Bogumil -- Kai, Chieko -- Kaida, Kaoru -- Kaiho, Ai -- Kajiyama, Kazuhiro -- Kanamori-Katayama, Mutsumi -- Kasianov, Artem S -- Kasukawa, Takeya -- Katayama, Shintaro -- Kato, Sachi -- Kawaguchi, Shuji -- Kawamoto, Hiroshi -- Kawamura, Yuki I -- Kawashima, Tsugumi -- Kempfle, Judith S -- Kenna, Tony J -- Kere, Juha -- Khachigian, Levon M -- Kitamura, Toshio -- Klinken, S Peter -- Knox, Alan J -- Kojima, Miki -- Kojima, Soichi -- Kondo, Naoto -- Koseki, Haruhiko -- Koyasu, Shigeo -- Krampitz, Sarah -- Kubosaki, Atsutaka -- Kwon, Andrew T -- Laros, Jeroen F J -- Lee, Weonju -- Lennartsson, Andreas -- Li, Kang -- Lilje, Berit -- Lipovich, Leonard -- Mackay-Sim, Alan -- Manabe, Ri-ichiroh -- Mar, Jessica C -- Marchand, Benoit -- Mathelier, Anthony -- Mejhert, Niklas -- Meynert, Alison -- Mizuno, Yosuke -- de Lima Morais, David A -- Morikawa, Hiromasa -- Morimoto, Mitsuru -- Moro, Kazuyo -- Motakis, Efthymios -- Motohashi, Hozumi -- Mummery, Christine L -- Murata, Mitsuyoshi -- Nagao-Sato, Sayaka -- Nakachi, Yutaka -- Nakahara, Fumio -- Nakamura, Toshiyuki -- Nakamura, Yukio -- Nakazato, Kenichi -- van Nimwegen, Erik -- Ninomiya, Noriko -- Nishiyori, Hiromi -- Noma, Shohei -- Noazaki, Tadasuke -- Ogishima, Soichi -- Ohkura, Naganari -- Ohimiya, Hiroko -- Ohno, Hiroshi -- Ohshima, Mitsuhiro -- Okada-Hatakeyama, Mariko -- Okazaki, Yasushi -- Orlando, Valerio -- Ovchinnikov, Dmitry A -- Pain, Arnab -- Passier, Robert -- Patrikakis, Margaret -- Persson, Helena -- Piazza, Silvano -- Prendergast, James G D -- Rackham, Owen J L -- Ramilowski, Jordan A -- Rashid, Mamoon -- Ravasi, Timothy -- Rizzu, Patrizia -- Roncador, Marco -- Roy, Sugata -- Rye, Morten B -- Saijyo, Eri -- Sajantila, Antti -- Saka, Akiko -- Sakaguchi, Shimon -- Sakai, Mizuho -- Sato, Hiroki -- Savvi, Suzana -- Saxena, Alka -- Schneider, Claudio -- Schultes, Erik A -- Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula G -- Schwegmann, Anita -- Sengstag, Thierry -- Sheng, Guojun -- Shimoji, Hisashi -- Shimoni, Yishai -- Shin, Jay W -- Simon, Christophe -- Sugiyama, Daisuke -- Sugiyama, Takaai -- Suzuki, Masanori -- Suzuki, Naoko -- Swoboda, Rolf K -- 't Hoen, Peter A C -- Tagami, Michihira -- Takahashi, Naoko -- Takai, Jun -- Tanaka, Hiroshi -- Tatsukawa, Hideki -- Tatum, Zuotian -- Thompson, Mark -- Toyodo, Hiroo -- Toyoda, Tetsuro -- Valen, Elvind -- van de Wetering, Marc -- van den Berg, Linda M -- Verado, Roberto -- Vijayan, Dipti -- Vorontsov, Ilya E -- Wasserman, Wyeth W -- Watanabe, Shoko -- Wells, Christine A -- Winteringham, Louise N -- Wolvetang, Ernst -- Wood, Emily J -- Yamaguchi, Yoko -- Yamamoto, Masayuki -- Yoneda, Misako -- Yonekura, Yohei -- Yoshida, Shigehiro -- Zabierowski, Susan E -- Zhang, Peter G -- Zhao, Xiaobei -- Zucchelli, Silvia -- Summers, Kim M -- Suzuki, Harukazu -- Daub, Carsten O -- Kawai, Jun -- Heutink, Peter -- Hide, Winston -- Freeman, Tom C -- Lenhard, Boris -- Bajic, Vladimir B -- Taylor, Martin S -- Makeev, Vsevolod J -- Sandelin, Albin -- Hume, David A -- Carninci, Piero -- Hayashizaki, Yoshihide -- BB/F003722/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- BB/G022771/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- BB/I001107/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_PC_U127597124/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_UP_1102/1/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- R01 DE022969/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM084875/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Mar 27;507(7493):462-70. doi: 10.1038/nature13182.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24670764" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Atlases as Topic ; Cell Line ; Cells, Cultured ; Cluster Analysis ; Conserved Sequence/genetics ; Gene Expression Regulation/genetics ; Gene Regulatory Networks/genetics ; Genes, Essential/genetics ; Genome/genetics ; Humans ; Mice ; *Molecular Sequence Annotation ; Open Reading Frames/genetics ; Organ Specificity ; Promoter Regions, Genetic/*genetics ; RNA, Messenger/analysis/genetics ; Transcription Factors/metabolism ; Transcription Initiation Site ; Transcription, Genetic/genetics ; Transcriptome/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-07-31
    Description: Background/Aim: Polaprezinc suspension in sodium alginate (PZ-AG) reduces the incidence and severity of oral mucositis in adult patients receiving radiotherapy or high-dose chemotherapy. In the present study, the prophylactic effect of PZ-AG against oral mucositis was assessed in pediatric patients with hematological malignancies receiving high-dose chemotherapy followed by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Patients and Methods: Data of 16 children who underwent HSCT during a period between January 2010 and December 2017 were obtained from medical records and they were retrospectively analyzed. Oral mucositis was evaluated by the WHO scale. Results: Six (37.5%) of 16 children refused to take PZ-AG in a preliminary assessment and they were pretreated with azulene gargle. The remaining 10 (62.5%) patients were pretreated with PZ-AG for prevention of oral mucositis. Grade≥ 3 oral mucositis occurred in 5 (83.3%) of 6 patients receiving azulene gargle, but in 2 (20%) patients who took PZ-AG (p=0.035). The prevalence for the use of opioid analgesics was also significantly lower (30% vs. 100%, p=0.011), while the average duration of total parenteral nutrition use was significantly shorter (11.1 days vs. 24.3 days, p=0.016), in PZ-AG group than in azulene group. On the other hand, PZ-AG had no significant influence on the incidence of other adverse events, mean time to engraftment, or overall survival. Conclusion: PZ-AG was found to be highly effective in preventing oral mucositis in pediatric patients with hematological malignancies receiving high-dose chemotherapy followed by HSCT, as in adult patients.
    Print ISSN: 0250-7005
    Electronic ISSN: 1791-7530
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Background: AS602801, a novel inhibitor of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), suppresses tumor initiation capacity and metastatic potential of cancer stem cells (CSCs). However, it remains unknown whether this inhibitor can chemosensitize CSCs. Materials and Methods: Using A2780 CSLC, a CSC line derived from ovarian cancer, this study examined the combinational effects of AS602801 and carboplatin or paclitaxel and explored the mechanism of those effects. Results: AS602801 chemosensitized A2780 CSLC cells to carboplatin and paclitaxel. With respect to the mechanism of chemosensitization, the expression of survivin, an anti-apoptotic protein, was reduced by AS602801. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of survivin chemosensitized the cells to carboplatin and paclitaxel. Suppression of survivin by AS602801 was also observed in other types of CSCs and non-CSCs. Conclusion: AS602801, which reduces survivin expression, can chemosensitize ovarian CSCs and is a candidate drug that targets the chemoresistance, tumor-initiating capacity and metastasis of CSCs.
    Print ISSN: 0250-7005
    Electronic ISSN: 1791-7530
    Topics: Medicine
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