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  • 1
    Keywords: Medicine ; Gene Expression ; Biotechnology ; Proteomics ; Biological models ; Cytology ; Biomedicine ; Biomedicine general ; Cell Biology ; Systems Biology ; Proteomics ; Gene Expression ; Biotechnology ; Springer eBooks
    Pages: : digital.
    ISBN: 9789400743304
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Non-rod, non-cone ocular photoreceptors have been shown to mediate a range of irradiance detection tasks. The strongest candidates for these receptors are melanopsin-positive retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). To provide a more complete understanding of these receptors in vivo, we have utilized a mouse that lacks rod and cone photoreceptors (rd/rd cl) and compared these animals to congenic wild-types. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, we address the following. (1) Is Fos expression within these RGCs driven by an input from the rods/cones or is it the product of the intrinsic photosensitivity of these neurons? We demonstrate that most Fos expression across the entire retina is due to the rods/cones, but in the absence of these photoreceptors, light will induce Fos within melanopsin RGCs. (2) Could the reported age-related decline in circadian photosensitivity of rodents be linked to changes in the population of melanopsin RGCs? We show that old mice experience an ∼ 40% reduction in melanopsin RGCs. (3) Does the loss of inner retinal neurons affect the responses of melanopsin RGCs? Aged (∼ 700 days) rd/rd cl mice lose most of their inner retina but retain the retinal ganglion cell layer. In these mice, the proportion of melanopsin RGCs that express Fos in response to light is significantly reduced. Collectively, our data suggest that melanopsin RGCs form a heterogeneous population of neurons, and that most of the light-induced c-fos expression within these cells is associated with the endogenous photosensitivity of these neurons.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells have been proposed as the photoreceptors mediating non-rod, non-cone ocular responses to light. Here we use the aged (approximately 2 years) rodless and coneless (rd/rd cl) mouse to assess the impact of progressive inner retinal cell loss on melanopsin expression, circadian entrainment and pupillary constriction. Aged rd/rd cl mice show substantial transneuronal retinal degeneration leaving only the ganglion cell layer and little of the inner nuclear layer. Despite this loss, quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction showed normal levels of melanopsin expression, and immunocytochemistry demonstrated both the presence and normal cellular appearance of these cells. Furthermore, the optic nerves of the two genotypes (rd/rd cl and +/+) were not obviously different in animals older than 2 years. However, this massive level of retinal degeneration left both pupillary and circadian responses to light intact, even in rd/rd cl mice older than 2 years. Our data provide the first positive correlation between the persistence of melanopsin-expressing cells and the maintenance of both circadian and pupillary responses to light in the absence of rods and cones. These findings, together with recent studies on melanopsin knockout mice, are consistent with the hypothesis that melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells are photosensitive and mediate a range of irradiance-detection tasks.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 1056-8700
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Progress in experimental and theoretical biology is likely to provide us with the opportunity to assemble detailed predictive models of mammalian cells. Using a functional format to describe the organization of mammalian cells, we describe current approaches for developing qualitative and quantitative models using data from a variety of experimental sources. Recent developments and applications of graph theory to biological networks are reviewed. The use of these qualitative models to identify the topology of regulatory motifs and functional modules is discussed. Cellular homeostasis and plasticity are interpreted within the framework of balance between regulatory motifs and interactions between modules. From this analysis we identify the need for detailed quantitative models on the basis of the representation of the chemistry underlying the cellular process. The use of deterministic, stochastic, and hybrid models to represent cellular processes is reviewed, and an initial integrated approach for the development of large-scale predictive models of a mammalian cell is presented.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1546-1718
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] Pendred syndrome is a recessively inherited disorder with the hallmark features of congenital deafness and thyroid goitre. By some estimates, the disorder may account for upwards of 10% of hereditary deafness. Previous genetic linkage studies localized the gene to a broad interval on human ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-04-11
    Description: Massive mining of publicly available RNA-seq data from human and mouse Massive mining of publicly available RNA-seq data from human and mouse, Published online: 10 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41467-018-03751-6 Publicly available RNA-seq data is provided mostly in raw form, resulting in a barrier for integrative analyses. Here, Lachmann et al. develop a high-throughput processing infrastructure and search database (ARCHS4) that provides processed RNA-seq data for 187,946 publicly available mouse and human samples to support exploration and reuse.
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-1723
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2012-04-13
    Description: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are believed to have genetic and environmental origins, yet in only a modest fraction of individuals can specific causes be identified. To identify further genetic risk factors, here we assess the role of de novo mutations in ASD by sequencing the exomes of ASD cases and their parents (n = 175 trios). Fewer than half of the cases (46.3%) carry a missense or nonsense de novo variant, and the overall rate of mutation is only modestly higher than the expected rate. In contrast, the proteins encoded by genes that harboured de novo missense or nonsense mutations showed a higher degree of connectivity among themselves and to previous ASD genes as indexed by protein-protein interaction screens. The small increase in the rate of de novo events, when taken together with the protein interaction results, are consistent with an important but limited role for de novo point mutations in ASD, similar to that documented for de novo copy number variants. Genetic models incorporating these data indicate that most of the observed de novo events are unconnected to ASD; those that do confer risk are distributed across many genes and are incompletely penetrant (that is, not necessarily sufficient for disease). Our results support polygenic models in which spontaneous coding mutations in any of a large number of genes increases risk by 5- to 20-fold. Despite the challenge posed by such models, results from de novo events and a large parallel case-control study provide strong evidence in favour of CHD8 and KATNAL2 as genuine autism risk factors.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3613847/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3613847/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Neale, Benjamin M -- Kou, Yan -- Liu, Li -- Ma'ayan, Avi -- Samocha, Kaitlin E -- Sabo, Aniko -- Lin, Chiao-Feng -- Stevens, Christine -- Wang, Li-San -- Makarov, Vladimir -- Polak, Paz -- Yoon, Seungtai -- Maguire, Jared -- Crawford, Emily L -- Campbell, Nicholas G -- Geller, Evan T -- Valladares, Otto -- Schafer, Chad -- Liu, Han -- Zhao, Tuo -- Cai, Guiqing -- Lihm, Jayon -- Dannenfelser, Ruth -- Jabado, Omar -- Peralta, Zuleyma -- Nagaswamy, Uma -- Muzny, Donna -- Reid, Jeffrey G -- Newsham, Irene -- Wu, Yuanqing -- Lewis, Lora -- Han, Yi -- Voight, Benjamin F -- Lim, Elaine -- Rossin, Elizabeth -- Kirby, Andrew -- Flannick, Jason -- Fromer, Menachem -- Shakir, Khalid -- Fennell, Tim -- Garimella, Kiran -- Banks, Eric -- Poplin, Ryan -- Gabriel, Stacey -- DePristo, Mark -- Wimbish, Jack R -- Boone, Braden E -- Levy, Shawn E -- Betancur, Catalina -- Sunyaev, Shamil -- Boerwinkle, Eric -- Buxbaum, Joseph D -- Cook, Edwin H Jr -- Devlin, Bernie -- Gibbs, Richard A -- Roeder, Kathryn -- Schellenberg, Gerard D -- Sutcliffe, James S -- Daly, Mark J -- KL2 RR024977/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- P30 HD015052/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- P50 GM071558/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P50 HD055751/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH057881/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH061009/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH089004/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH089025/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH089175/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH089208/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH089482/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01MH084676/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01MH089175/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01MH089208/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007753/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- TL1 RR024978/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003067/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003273/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- UL1 RR024975/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Apr 4;485(7397):242-5. doi: 10.1038/nature11011.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22495311" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Autistic Disorder/*genetics ; Case-Control Studies ; DNA-Binding Proteins/*genetics ; Exome/genetics ; Exons/*genetics ; Family Health ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics ; Humans ; Models, Genetic ; Multifactorial Inheritance/genetics ; Mutation/*genetics ; Phenotype ; Poisson Distribution ; Protein Interaction Maps ; Transcription Factors/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-11-05
    Description: The genetic architecture of autism spectrum disorder involves the interplay of common and rare variants and their impact on hundreds of genes. Using exome sequencing, here we show that analysis of rare coding variation in 3,871 autism cases and 9,937 ancestry-matched or parental controls implicates 22 autosomal genes at a false discovery rate (FDR) 〈 0.05, plus a set of 107 autosomal genes strongly enriched for those likely to affect risk (FDR 〈 0.30). These 107 genes, which show unusual evolutionary constraint against mutations, incur de novo loss-of-function mutations in over 5% of autistic subjects. Many of the genes implicated encode proteins for synaptic formation, transcriptional regulation and chromatin-remodelling pathways. These include voltage-gated ion channels regulating the propagation of action potentials, pacemaking and excitability-transcription coupling, as well as histone-modifying enzymes and chromatin remodellers-most prominently those that mediate post-translational lysine methylation/demethylation modifications of histones.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4402723/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4402723/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉De Rubeis, Silvia -- He, Xin -- Goldberg, Arthur P -- Poultney, Christopher S -- Samocha, Kaitlin -- Cicek, A Erucment -- Kou, Yan -- Liu, Li -- Fromer, Menachem -- Walker, Susan -- Singh, Tarinder -- Klei, Lambertus -- Kosmicki, Jack -- Shih-Chen, Fu -- Aleksic, Branko -- Biscaldi, Monica -- Bolton, Patrick F -- Brownfeld, Jessica M -- Cai, Jinlu -- Campbell, Nicholas G -- Carracedo, Angel -- Chahrour, Maria H -- Chiocchetti, Andreas G -- Coon, Hilary -- Crawford, Emily L -- Curran, Sarah R -- Dawson, Geraldine -- Duketis, Eftichia -- Fernandez, Bridget A -- Gallagher, Louise -- Geller, Evan -- Guter, Stephen J -- Hill, R Sean -- Ionita-Laza, Juliana -- Jimenz Gonzalez, Patricia -- Kilpinen, Helena -- Klauck, Sabine M -- Kolevzon, Alexander -- Lee, Irene -- Lei, Irene -- Lei, Jing -- Lehtimaki, Terho -- Lin, Chiao-Feng -- Ma'ayan, Avi -- Marshall, Christian R -- McInnes, Alison L -- Neale, Benjamin -- Owen, Michael J -- Ozaki, Noriio -- Parellada, Mara -- Parr, Jeremy R -- Purcell, Shaun -- Puura, Kaija -- Rajagopalan, Deepthi -- Rehnstrom, Karola -- Reichenberg, Abraham -- Sabo, Aniko -- Sachse, Michael -- Sanders, Stephan J -- Schafer, Chad -- Schulte-Ruther, Martin -- Skuse, David -- Stevens, Christine -- Szatmari, Peter -- Tammimies, Kristiina -- Valladares, Otto -- Voran, Annette -- Li-San, Wang -- Weiss, Lauren A -- Willsey, A Jeremy -- Yu, Timothy W -- Yuen, Ryan K C -- DDD Study -- Homozygosity Mapping Collaborative for Autism -- UK10K Consortium -- Cook, Edwin H -- Freitag, Christine M -- Gill, Michael -- Hultman, Christina M -- Lehner, Thomas -- Palotie, Aaarno -- Schellenberg, Gerard D -- Sklar, Pamela -- State, Matthew W -- Sutcliffe, James S -- Walsh, Christiopher A -- Scherer, Stephen W -- Zwick, Michael E -- Barett, Jeffrey C -- Cutler, David J -- Roeder, Kathryn -- Devlin, Bernie -- Daly, Mark J -- Buxbaum, Joseph D -- 5UL1 RR024975/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- MH077139/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- MH089482/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- MH095034/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- P30 HD15052/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- P50 HD055751/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH061009/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH083565/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH089482/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH094400/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH095797/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH097849/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH100229/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS073601/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01MH083565/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01MH089208/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R37 MH057881/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- RC2MH089952/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- T32 HG002295/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01 MH100209/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U01 MH100229/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U01 MH100233/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U01 MH100239/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U01MH100209/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U01MH100229/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U01MH100233/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U01MH100239/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003067/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- UL1TR000445/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- WT091310/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- WT098051/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Nov 13;515(7526):209-15. doi: 10.1038/nature13772. Epub 2014 Oct 29.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25363760" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Child Development Disorders, Pervasive/*genetics/pathology ; Chromatin/*genetics/metabolism ; Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly ; Exome/genetics ; Female ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics ; Germ-Line Mutation/genetics ; Humans ; Male ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutation/*genetics ; Mutation, Missense/genetics ; Nerve Net/metabolism ; Odds Ratio ; Synapses/*metabolism ; Transcription, Genetic/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2015-12-05
    Description: Whereas the cellular basis of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche in the bone marrow has been characterized, the nature of the fetal liver niche is not yet elucidated. We show that Nestin(+)NG2(+) pericytes associate with portal vessels, forming a niche promoting HSC expansion. Nestin(+)NG2(+) cells and HSCs scale during development with the fractal branching patterns of portal vessels, tributaries of the umbilical vein. After closure of the umbilical inlet at birth, portal vessels undergo a transition from Neuropilin-1(+)Ephrin-B2(+) artery to EphB4(+) vein phenotype, associated with a loss of periportal Nestin(+)NG2(+) cells and emigration of HSCs away from portal vessels. These data support a model in which HSCs are titrated against a periportal vascular niche with a fractal-like organization enabled by placental circulation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4706788/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4706788/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Khan, Jalal A -- Mendelson, Avital -- Kunisaki, Yuya -- Birbrair, Alexander -- Kou, Yan -- Arnal-Estape, Anna -- Pinho, Sandra -- Ciero, Paul -- Nakahara, Fumio -- Ma'ayan, Avi -- Bergman, Aviv -- Merad, Miriam -- Frenette, Paul S -- CA164468/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- DA033788/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- DK056638/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- F30 943257/PHS HHS/ -- F32 HL123224/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL069438/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL097700/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA173861/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA190400/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA033788/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK056638/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL069438/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL116340/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01GM098316/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 063754/PHS HHS/ -- U54 HL127624/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U54CA189201/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U54HL127624/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 8;351(6269):176-80. doi: 10.1126/science.aad0084. Epub 2015 Dec 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Ruth L. and David S. Gottesman Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Research. Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA. Department of Cell Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA. Department of Oncological Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA. ; Ruth L. and David S. Gottesman Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Research. Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA. Department of Cell Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA. ; Department of Pharmacology and Systems Therapeutics, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA. ; Ruth L. and David S. Gottesman Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Research. Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA. ; Department of Systems and Computational Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA. ; Department of Oncological Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA. ; Ruth L. and David S. Gottesman Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Research. Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA. Department of Cell Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA. Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA. paul.frenette@einstein.yu.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26634440" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antigens/analysis ; Ephrin-B2/analysis ; Female ; Hematopoietic Stem Cells/*physiology ; Liver/blood supply/*embryology ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Mutant Strains ; Nestin/analysis ; Neuropilin-1/analysis ; Placental Circulation ; Portal System/chemistry/*embryology ; Pregnancy ; Proteoglycans/analysis ; Receptor, EphB4/analysis ; Stem Cell Niche/*physiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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