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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Earth, moon and planets 85-86 (1999), S. 545-545 
    ISSN: 1573-0794
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The infrared spectrometer, SIR, is a compact and low mass (2 kg)instrument designed to measure reflectance spectra of the lunar surface on theESA SMART-1 spacecraft in line scanning mode. SIR offers the possibility toidentify the mineralogical composition of the lunar surface to a new level ofaccuracy and resolution based on its superior sensitivity in the wavelength range between 900 and 2400 nm. This capability is of particular importance for the study of features like maria, craters, and fracture ridges that will provide deeper insights in crust and mantel material and therefore in the development of the Moon and the Earth–Moon system. Reflectance spectra, obtained over a large range of viewing geometries, will be useful to study their phase angle dependence and effects of space weathering.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-11-07
    Description: The surface of the asteroid Vesta has prominent near-infrared absorption bands characteristic of a range of pyroxenes, confirming a direct link to the basaltic howardite-eucrite-diogenite class of meteorites. Processes active in the space environment produce 'space weathering' products that substantially weaken or mask such diagnostic absorption on airless bodies observed elsewhere, and it has long been a mystery why Vesta's absorption bands are so strong. Analyses of soil samples from both the Moon and the asteroid Itokawa determined that nanophase metallic particles (commonly nanophase iron) accumulate on the rims of regolith grains with time, accounting for an observed optical degradation. These nanophase particles, believed to be related to solar wind and micrometeoroid bombardment processes, leave unique spectroscopic signatures that can be measured remotely but require sufficient spatial resolution to discern the geologic context and history of the surface, which has not been achieved for Vesta until now. Here we report that Vesta shows its own form of space weathering, which is quite different from that of other airless bodies visited. No evidence is detected on Vesta for accumulation of lunar-like nanophase iron on regolith particles, even though distinct material exposed at several fresh craters becomes gradually masked and fades into the background as the craters age. Instead, spectroscopic data reveal that on Vesta a locally homogenized upper regolith is generated with time through small-scale mixing of diverse surface components.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pieters, C M -- Ammannito, E -- Blewett, D T -- Denevi, B W -- De Sanctis, M C -- Gaffey, M J -- Le Corre, L -- Li, J-Y -- Marchi, S -- McCord, T B -- McFadden, L A -- Mittlefehldt, D W -- Nathues, A -- Palmer, E -- Reddy, V -- Raymond, C A -- Russell, C T -- England -- Nature. 2012 Nov 1;491(7422):79-82. doi: 10.1038/nature11534.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Geological Sciences, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, USA. carle_pieters@brown.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23128227" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-12-15
    Description: The dwarf planet (1) Ceres, the largest object in the main asteroid belt with a mean diameter of about 950 kilometres, is located at a mean distance from the Sun of about 2.8 astronomical units (one astronomical unit is the Earth-Sun distance). Thermal evolution models suggest that it is a differentiated body with potential geological activity. Unlike on the icy satellites of Jupiter and Saturn, where tidal forces are responsible for spewing briny water into space, no tidal forces are acting on Ceres. In the absence of such forces, most objects in the main asteroid belt are expected to be geologically inert. The recent discovery of water vapour absorption near Ceres and previous detection of bound water and OH near and on Ceres (refs 5-7) have raised interest in the possible presence of surface ice. Here we report the presence of localized bright areas on Ceres from an orbiting imager. These unusual areas are consistent with hydrated magnesium sulfates mixed with dark background material, although other compositions are possible. Of particular interest is a bright pit on the floor of crater Occator that exhibits probable sublimation of water ice, producing haze clouds inside the crater that appear and disappear with a diurnal rhythm. Slow-moving condensed-ice or dust particles may explain this haze. We conclude that Ceres must have accreted material from beyond the 'snow line', which is the distance from the Sun at which water molecules condense.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nathues, A -- Hoffmann, M -- Schaefer, M -- Le Corre, L -- Reddy, V -- Platz, T -- Cloutis, E A -- Christensen, U -- Kneissl, T -- Li, J-Y -- Mengel, K -- Schmedemann, N -- Schaefer, T -- Russell, C T -- Applin, D M -- Buczkowski, D L -- Izawa, M R M -- Keller, H U -- O'Brien, D P -- Pieters, C M -- Raymond, C A -- Ripken, J -- Schenk, P M -- Schmidt, B E -- Sierks, H -- Sykes, M V -- Thangjam, G S -- Vincent, J-B -- England -- Nature. 2015 Dec 10;528(7581):237-40. doi: 10.1038/nature15754.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Goettingen, Germany. ; Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, Arizona, USA. ; University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, Canada. ; Freie Universitaet Berlin, Berlin, Germany. ; Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany. ; University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, California, USA. ; Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, Maryland, USA. ; Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Canada. ; TU Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany. ; Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA. ; Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, USA. ; Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, Texas, USA. ; Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26659183" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2012-05-15
    Description: Multispectral images (0.44 to 0.98 mum) of asteroid (4) Vesta obtained by the Dawn Framing Cameras reveal global color variations that uncover and help understand the north-south hemispherical dichotomy. The signature of deep lithologies excavated during the formation of the Rheasilvia basin on the south pole has been preserved on the surface. Color variations (band depth, spectral slope, and eucrite-diogenite abundance) clearly correlate with distinct compositional units. Vesta displays the greatest variation of geometric albedo (0.10 to 0.67) of any asteroid yet observed. Four distinct color units are recognized that chronicle processes--including impact excavation, mass wasting, and space weathering--that shaped the asteroid's surface. Vesta's color and photometric diversity are indicative of its status as a preserved, differentiated protoplanet.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Reddy, Vishnu -- Nathues, Andreas -- Le Corre, Lucille -- Sierks, Holger -- Li, Jian-Yang -- Gaskell, Robert -- McCoy, Timothy -- Beck, Andrew W -- Schroder, Stefan E -- Pieters, Carle M -- Becker, Kris J -- Buratti, Bonnie J -- Denevi, Brett -- Blewett, David T -- Christensen, Ulrich -- Gaffey, Michael J -- Gutierrez-Marques, Pablo -- Hicks, Michael -- Keller, Horst Uwe -- Maue, Thorsten -- Mottola, Stefano -- McFadden, Lucy A -- McSween, Harry Y -- Mittlefehldt, David -- O'Brien, David P -- Raymond, Carol -- Russell, Christopher -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 May 11;336(6082):700-4. doi: 10.1126/science.1219088.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max-Planck-Strasse 2, 37191 Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany. reddy@mps.mpg.de〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22582258" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2012-05-15
    Description: The Dawn spacecraft targeted 4 Vesta, believed to be a remnant intact protoplanet from the earliest epoch of solar system formation, based on analyses of howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED) meteorites that indicate a differentiated parent body. Dawn observations reveal a giant basin at Vesta's south pole, whose excavation was sufficient to produce Vesta-family asteroids (Vestoids) and HED meteorites. The spatially resolved mineralogy of the surface reflects the composition of the HED meteorites, confirming the formation of Vesta's crust by melting of a chondritic parent body. Vesta's mass, volume, and gravitational field are consistent with a core having an average radius of 107 to 113 kilometers, indicating sufficient internal melting to segregate iron. Dawn's results confirm predictions that Vesta differentiated and support its identification as the parent body of the HEDs.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Russell, C T -- Raymond, C A -- Coradini, A -- McSween, H Y -- Zuber, M T -- Nathues, A -- De Sanctis, M C -- Jaumann, R -- Konopliv, A S -- Preusker, F -- Asmar, S W -- Park, R S -- Gaskell, R -- Keller, H U -- Mottola, S -- Roatsch, T -- Scully, J E C -- Smith, D E -- Tricarico, P -- Toplis, M J -- Christensen, U R -- Feldman, W C -- Lawrence, D J -- McCoy, T J -- Prettyman, T H -- Reedy, R C -- Sykes, M E -- Titus, T N -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 May 11;336(6082):684-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1219381.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567, USA. ctrussell@igpp.ucla.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22582253" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2012-11-07
    Description: Localized dark and bright materials, often with extremely different albedos, were recently found on Vesta's surface. The range of albedos is among the largest observed on Solar System rocky bodies. These dark materials, often associated with craters, appear in ejecta and crater walls, and their pyroxene absorption strengths are correlated with material brightness. It was tentatively suggested that the dark material on Vesta could be either exogenic, from carbon-rich, low-velocity impactors, or endogenic, from freshly exposed mafic material or impact melt, created or exposed by impacts. Here we report Vesta spectra and images and use them to derive and interpret the properties of the 'pure' dark and bright materials. We argue that the dark material is mainly from infall of hydrated carbonaceous material (like that found in a major class of meteorites and some comet surfaces), whereas the bright material is the uncontaminated indigenous Vesta basaltic soil. Dark material from low-albedo impactors is diffused over time through the Vestan regolith by impact mixing, creating broader, diffuse darker regions and finally Vesta's background surface material. This is consistent with howardite-eucrite-diogenite meteorites coming from Vesta.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉McCord, T B -- Li, J-Y -- Combe, J-P -- McSween, H Y -- Jaumann, R -- Reddy, V -- Tosi, F -- Williams, D A -- Blewett, D T -- Turrini, D -- Palomba, E -- Pieters, C M -- De Sanctis, M C -- Ammannito, E -- Capria, M T -- Le Corre, L -- Longobardo, A -- Nathues, A -- Mittlefehldt, D W -- Schroder, S E -- Hiesinger, H -- Beck, A W -- Capaccioni, F -- Carsenty, U -- Keller, H U -- Denevi, B W -- Sunshine, J M -- Raymond, C A -- Russell, C T -- England -- Nature. 2012 Nov 1;491(7422):83-6. doi: 10.1038/nature11561.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Bear Fight Institute, 22 Fiddler's Road, Box 667, Winthrop, Washington 98862, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23128228" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2012-09-22
    Description: We investigated the origin of unusual pitted terrain on asteroid Vesta, revealed in images from the Dawn spacecraft. Pitted terrain is characterized by irregular rimless depressions found in and around several impact craters, with a distinct morphology not observed on other airless bodies. Similar terrain is associated with numerous martian craters, where pits are thought to form through degassing of volatile-bearing material heated by the impact. Pitted terrain on Vesta may have formed in a similar manner, which indicates that portions of the surface contain a relatively large volatile component. Exogenic materials, such as water-rich carbonaceous chondrites, may be the source of volatiles, suggesting that impactor materials are preserved locally in relatively high abundance on Vesta and that impactor composition has played an important role in shaping the asteroid's geology.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Denevi, B W -- Blewett, D T -- Buczkowski, D L -- Capaccioni, F -- Capria, M T -- De Sanctis, M C -- Garry, W B -- Gaskell, R W -- Le Corre, L -- Li, J-Y -- Marchi, S -- McCoy, T J -- Nathues, A -- O'Brien, D P -- Petro, N E -- Pieters, C M -- Preusker, F -- Raymond, C A -- Reddy, V -- Russell, C T -- Schenk, P -- Scully, J E C -- Sunshine, J M -- Tosi, F -- Williams, D A -- Wyrick, D -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Oct 12;338(6104):246-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1225374. Epub 2012 Sep 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD, USA. brett.denevi@jhuapl.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22997131" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2012-05-15
    Description: The mineralogy of Vesta, based on data obtained by the Dawn spacecraft's visible and infrared spectrometer, is consistent with howardite-eucrite-diogenite meteorites. There are considerable regional and local variations across the asteroid: Spectrally distinct regions include the south-polar Rheasilvia basin, which displays a higher diogenitic component, and equatorial regions, which show a higher eucritic component. The lithologic distribution indicates a deeper diogenitic crust, exposed after excavation by the impact that formed Rheasilvia, and an upper eucritic crust. Evidence for mineralogical stratigraphic layering is observed on crater walls and in ejecta. This is broadly consistent with magma-ocean models, but spectral variability highlights local variations, which suggests that the crust can be a complex assemblage of eucritic basalts and pyroxene cumulates. Overall, Vesta mineralogy indicates a complex magmatic evolution that led to a differentiated crust and mantle.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉De Sanctis, M C -- Ammannito, E -- Capria, M T -- Tosi, F -- Capaccioni, F -- Zambon, F -- Carraro, F -- Fonte, S -- Frigeri, A -- Jaumann, R -- Magni, G -- Marchi, S -- McCord, T B -- McFadden, L A -- McSween, H Y -- Mittlefehldt, D W -- Nathues, A -- Palomba, E -- Pieters, C M -- Raymond, C A -- Russell, C T -- Toplis, M J -- Turrini, D -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 May 11;336(6082):697-700. doi: 10.1126/science.1219270.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Rome, Italy. mariacristina.desanctis@iaps.inaf.it〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22582257" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2012-05-15
    Description: Vesta's surface is characterized by abundant impact craters, some with preserved ejecta blankets, large troughs extending around the equatorial region, enigmatic dark material, and widespread mass wasting, but as yet an absence of volcanic features. Abundant steep slopes indicate that impact-generated surface regolith is underlain by bedrock. Dawn observations confirm the large impact basin (Rheasilvia) at Vesta's south pole and reveal evidence for an earlier, underlying large basin (Veneneia). Vesta's geology displays morphological features characteristic of the Moon and terrestrial planets as well as those of other asteroids, underscoring Vesta's unique role as a transitional solar system body.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jaumann, R -- Williams, D A -- Buczkowski, D L -- Yingst, R A -- Preusker, F -- Hiesinger, H -- Schmedemann, N -- Kneissl, T -- Vincent, J B -- Blewett, D T -- Buratti, B J -- Carsenty, U -- Denevi, B W -- De Sanctis, M C -- Garry, W B -- Keller, H U -- Kersten, E -- Krohn, K -- Li, J-Y -- Marchi, S -- Matz, K D -- McCord, T B -- McSween, H Y -- Mest, S C -- Mittlefehldt, D W -- Mottola, S -- Nathues, A -- Neukum, G -- O'Brien, D P -- Pieters, C M -- Prettyman, T H -- Raymond, C A -- Roatsch, T -- Russell, C T -- Schenk, P -- Schmidt, B E -- Scholten, F -- Stephan, K -- Sykes, M V -- Tricarico, P -- Wagner, R -- Zuber, M T -- Sierks, H -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 May 11;336(6082):687-90. doi: 10.1126/science.1219122.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉German Aerospace Center, Institute of Planetary Research, Berlin, Germany. ralf.jaumann@dlr.de〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22582254" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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