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  • 1
    ISSN: 1570-7458
    Keywords: Spider mites ; Tetranychus urticae ; soybeans ; water stress ; spatial distribution
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Un arrosage par capillarité contrôlé a été utilisé pour maintenir différentes teneurs en eau dans des pieds empotés de G. max. Le stress hydrique a réduit, en une génération, la densité de T. urticae (nombre d'acariens/cm2 de feuille), et particulièrement celle des femelles et des oeufs. Les acariens étaient plus nombreux sur les feuilles les plus jeunes et peut-être les plus nutritives des strates supérieures des pieds de soja.
    Notes: Abstract A rope wick technique was used to establish different levels of water stress in potted, greenhouse-grown soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, plants. Water stress reduced, within a single generation, the overall abundance (number of mites/cm2 leaf) of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and particularly influenced female mites and eggs. Mites were most numerous in the upper strata of soybean plants on youger and possibly more nutritious leaves.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1570-7458
    Keywords: Corn rootworms ; Diabrotica virgifera virgifera ; rearing ; fungal colonization ; mold control
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Les œufs de D. virgifera virgifera sont généralement colonisés par un ensemble d'espèces de champignon, lors de leur incubation au laboratoire sur papier filtre ou papier buvard. Cylindrocarpon destructans (Zins.) Scholten prédomine parmi les espèces identifiées: plus de 95% des cas observés. La colonisation par des champignons réduit souvent considérablement le taux d'éclosion. L'influence du type de papier, de l'ébullition préalable, du substrat (papier ou sol), du pH, et de fongicides chimiques a été examinée. Ni le type de papier, ni son ébullition préalable ne modifient les taux d'éclosion et de contamination par les champignons. Lors de l'incubation à la surface du sol, le taux d'éclosion est significativement plus élevé et le nombre d'œufs contaminés significativement plus faible (P〈0.05) que sur papier filtre. Lorsque les œufs sont placés dans le sol, plus le temps de séjour est long, plus le taux d'éclosion est élevé et plus la colonisation par les champignons est faible. Le taux d'éclosion est significativement plus bas à pH 3 qu'aux pH de 4 à 8 et dans l'eau distillée. Les traitements des œufs au bénomyl et au thiram réduisent significativement les taux de contamination fongique par rapport au témoin (eau distillée). Les taux de contamination après traitement avec d'autres fongicides sont les mêmes que celui du témoin; par contre, les taux d'éclosion après traitement au bénomyl, au formaldéhyde, à l'eau de Javel, ou à l'éthanol sont significativement supérieurs à ceux des témoins. Le thiram élimine presque totalement la moisissure (0.5% de colonisation), mais tue presque tous les œufs (95.3%). L'effet fongique de bénomyl ne diffère pas significativement de celui du thiram. Le nombre de jours précédent la première éclosion, 50% d'éclosions, et la dernière éclosion des œufs traités au bénomyl ne diffère pas significativement de celui des témoins. Les traitements au bénomyl, à l'hypochlorite de sodium, au formaldéhyde n'affectent pas significativement les larves ayant émergé de ces œufs. A la lumière de ces résultats, le bénomyl semble le fongicide le plus efficace contre les champignons contaminant les œufs de D. virgifera virgifera au laboratoire.
    Notes: Abstract When incubated on filter or blotter paper in the laboratory, eggs of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae), were usually colonized and killed by the fungus Cylindrocarpon destructans (Zins.) Scholten. The effects of type of paper used during incubation and boiling, rearing substrate (paper or soil), pH, and antimicrobial chemicals on percent egg hatch and fungal colonization were evaluated. Neither paper type nor boiling the paper affected hatch or fungal colonization. Significantly (P〈0.05) higher numbers of eggs hatched and fungi colonized lower numbers of eggs when eggs were incubated on the soil surface than when they were incubated on filter paper. In treatments where eggs were placed within soil, the longer the eggs remained in the soil, the greater the percent egg hatch and the lower the incidence of fungal colonization. Egg hatch was significantly lower and fungal colonization significantly higher at pH 3 than at pH 4 through 8 and distilled water. Treatment of eggs with benomyl significantly reduced fungal colonization and increased hatch while not affecting the number of days required for initial, 50%, and last hatch of eggs or larval survival.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Entomology 36 (1991), S. 229-255 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2012-04-13
    Description: Primary triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs), a tumour type defined by lack of oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and ERBB2 gene amplification, represent approximately 16% of all breast cancers. Here we show in 104 TNBC cases that at the time of diagnosis these cancers exhibit a wide and continuous spectrum of genomic evolution, with some having only a handful of coding somatic aberrations in a few pathways, whereas others contain hundreds of coding somatic mutations. High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) revealed that only approximately 36% of mutations are expressed. Using deep re-sequencing measurements of allelic abundance for 2,414 somatic mutations, we determine for the first time-to our knowledge-in an epithelial tumour subtype, the relative abundance of clonal frequencies among cases representative of the population. We show that TNBCs vary widely in their clonal frequencies at the time of diagnosis, with the basal subtype of TNBC showing more variation than non-basal TNBC. Although p53 (also known as TP53), PIK3CA and PTEN somatic mutations seem to be clonally dominant compared to other genes, in some tumours their clonal frequencies are incompatible with founder status. Mutations in cytoskeletal, cell shape and motility proteins occurred at lower clonal frequencies, suggesting that they occurred later during tumour progression. Taken together, our results show that understanding the biology and therapeutic responses of patients with TNBC will require the determination of individual tumour clonal genotypes.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3863681/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3863681/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shah, Sohrab P -- Roth, Andrew -- Goya, Rodrigo -- Oloumi, Arusha -- Ha, Gavin -- Zhao, Yongjun -- Turashvili, Gulisa -- Ding, Jiarui -- Tse, Kane -- Haffari, Gholamreza -- Bashashati, Ali -- Prentice, Leah M -- Khattra, Jaswinder -- Burleigh, Angela -- Yap, Damian -- Bernard, Virginie -- McPherson, Andrew -- Shumansky, Karey -- Crisan, Anamaria -- Giuliany, Ryan -- Heravi-Moussavi, Alireza -- Rosner, Jamie -- Lai, Daniel -- Birol, Inanc -- Varhol, Richard -- Tam, Angela -- Dhalla, Noreen -- Zeng, Thomas -- Ma, Kevin -- Chan, Simon K -- Griffith, Malachi -- Moradian, Annie -- Cheng, S-W Grace -- Morin, Gregg B -- Watson, Peter -- Gelmon, Karen -- Chia, Stephen -- Chin, Suet-Feung -- Curtis, Christina -- Rueda, Oscar M -- Pharoah, Paul D -- Damaraju, Sambasivarao -- Mackey, John -- Hoon, Kelly -- Harkins, Timothy -- Tadigotla, Vasisht -- Sigaroudinia, Mahvash -- Gascard, Philippe -- Tlsty, Thea -- Costello, Joseph F -- Meyer, Irmtraud M -- Eaves, Connie J -- Wasserman, Wyeth W -- Jones, Steven -- Huntsman, David -- Hirst, Martin -- Caldas, Carlos -- Marra, Marco A -- Aparicio, Samuel -- 5U01ES017154-02/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM084875/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01GM084875/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2012 Apr 4;486(7403):395-9. doi: 10.1038/nature10933.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2B5, Canada. sshah@bccrc.ca〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22495314" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alleles ; Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis/*genetics/*pathology ; Clone Cells/metabolism/pathology ; DNA Copy Number Variations/genetics ; DNA Mutational Analysis ; Disease Progression ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Female ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/genetics ; Genotype ; High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing ; Humans ; INDEL Mutation/genetics ; Mutation/*genetics ; Point Mutation/genetics ; Precision Medicine ; Reproducibility of Results ; Sequence Analysis, RNA
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2014-12-04
    Description: Human cancers, including breast cancers, comprise clones differing in mutation content. Clones evolve dynamically in space and time following principles of Darwinian evolution, underpinning important emergent features such as drug resistance and metastasis. Human breast cancer xenoengraftment is used as a means of capturing and studying tumour biology, and breast tumour xenografts are generally assumed to be reasonable models of the originating tumours. However, the consequences and reproducibility of engraftment and propagation on the genomic clonal architecture of tumours have not been systematically examined at single-cell resolution. Here we show, using deep-genome and single-cell sequencing methods, the clonal dynamics of initial engraftment and subsequent serial propagation of primary and metastatic human breast cancers in immunodeficient mice. In all 15 cases examined, clonal selection on engraftment was observed in both primary and metastatic breast tumours, varying in degree from extreme selective engraftment of minor (〈5% of starting population) clones to moderate, polyclonal engraftment. Furthermore, ongoing clonal dynamics during serial passaging is a feature of tumours experiencing modest initial selection. Through single-cell sequencing, we show that major mutation clusters estimated from tumour population sequencing relate predictably to the most abundant clonal genotypes, even in clonally complex and rapidly evolving cases. Finally, we show that similar clonal expansion patterns can emerge in independent grafts of the same starting tumour population, indicating that genomic aberrations can be reproducible determinants of evolutionary trajectories. Our results show that measurement of genomically defined clonal population dynamics will be highly informative for functional studies using patient-derived breast cancer xenoengraftment.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Eirew, Peter -- Steif, Adi -- Khattra, Jaswinder -- Ha, Gavin -- Yap, Damian -- Farahani, Hossein -- Gelmon, Karen -- Chia, Stephen -- Mar, Colin -- Wan, Adrian -- Laks, Emma -- Biele, Justina -- Shumansky, Karey -- Rosner, Jamie -- McPherson, Andrew -- Nielsen, Cydney -- Roth, Andrew J L -- Lefebvre, Calvin -- Bashashati, Ali -- de Souza, Camila -- Siu, Celia -- Aniba, Radhouane -- Brimhall, Jazmine -- Oloumi, Arusha -- Osako, Tomo -- Bruna, Alejandra -- Sandoval, Jose L -- Algara, Teresa -- Greenwood, Wendy -- Leung, Kaston -- Cheng, Hongwei -- Xue, Hui -- Wang, Yuzhuo -- Lin, Dong -- Mungall, Andrew J -- Moore, Richard -- Zhao, Yongjun -- Lorette, Julie -- Nguyen, Long -- Huntsman, David -- Eaves, Connie J -- Hansen, Carl -- Marra, Marco A -- Caldas, Carlos -- Shah, Sohrab P -- Aparicio, Samuel -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- England -- Nature. 2015 Feb 19;518(7539):422-6. doi: 10.1038/nature13952. Epub 2014 Nov 26.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Department of Molecular Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, 675 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 1L3, Canada [2] Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2B5, Canada. ; Department of Medical Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, 600 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4E6, Canada. ; Department of Molecular Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, 675 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 1L3, Canada. ; 1] Department of Oncology, University of Cambridge, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2XZ, UK [2] Cancer Research UK Cambridge Research Institute, University of Cambridge, Li Ka Shing Centre, Cambridge CB2 0RE, UK. ; 1] Centre for High-Throughput Biology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada [2] Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1, Canada. ; 1] Department of Experimental Therapeutics, BC Cancer Agency, 675 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 1L3, Canada [2] The Vancouver Prostate Centre, Vancouver General Hospital and Department of Urologic Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 1M9, Canada. ; Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 1L3, Canada. ; Centre for Translational and Applied Genomics, BC Cancer Agency, 600 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4E6, Canada. ; 1] Department of Medical Genetics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z3, Canada [2] Terry Fox Laboratory, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 1L3, Canada. ; 1] Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2B5, Canada [2] Centre for Translational and Applied Genomics, BC Cancer Agency, 600 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4E6, Canada. ; 1] Department of Molecular Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, 675 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 1L3, Canada [2] Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2B5, Canada [3] Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 1L3, Canada. ; 1] Department of Molecular Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, 675 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 1L3, Canada [2] Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2B5, Canada [3] Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 1L3, Canada [4] Centre for Translational and Applied Genomics, BC Cancer Agency, 600 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4E6, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25470049" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Breast Neoplasms/*genetics/*pathology/secondary ; Clone Cells/*metabolism/*pathology ; DNA Mutational Analysis ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; Genomics ; Genotype ; High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing ; Humans ; Mice ; Neoplasm Transplantation ; *Single-Cell Analysis ; Time Factors ; Transplantation, Heterologous ; *Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays/methods
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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