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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-05-16
    Description: Metabolism and ageing are intimately linked. Compared with ad libitum feeding, dietary restriction consistently extends lifespan and delays age-related diseases in evolutionarily diverse organisms. Similar conditions of nutrient limitation and genetic or pharmacological perturbations of nutrient or energy metabolism also have longevity benefits. Recently, several metabolites have been identified that modulate ageing; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this are largely undefined. Here we show that alpha-ketoglutarate (alpha-KG), a tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate, extends the lifespan of adult Caenorhabditis elegans. ATP synthase subunit beta is identified as a novel binding protein of alpha-KG using a small-molecule target identification strategy termed drug affinity responsive target stability (DARTS). The ATP synthase, also known as complex V of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, is the main cellular energy-generating machinery and is highly conserved throughout evolution. Although complete loss of mitochondrial function is detrimental, partial suppression of the electron transport chain has been shown to extend C. elegans lifespan. We show that alpha-KG inhibits ATP synthase and, similar to ATP synthase knockdown, inhibition by alpha-KG leads to reduced ATP content, decreased oxygen consumption, and increased autophagy in both C. elegans and mammalian cells. We provide evidence that the lifespan increase by alpha-KG requires ATP synthase subunit beta and is dependent on target of rapamycin (TOR) downstream. Endogenous alpha-KG levels are increased on starvation and alpha-KG does not extend the lifespan of dietary-restricted animals, indicating that alpha-KG is a key metabolite that mediates longevity by dietary restriction. Our analyses uncover new molecular links between a common metabolite, a universal cellular energy generator and dietary restriction in the regulation of organismal lifespan, thus suggesting new strategies for the prevention and treatment of ageing and age-related diseases.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4263271/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4263271/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chin, Randall M -- Fu, Xudong -- Pai, Melody Y -- Vergnes, Laurent -- Hwang, Heejun -- Deng, Gang -- Diep, Simon -- Lomenick, Brett -- Meli, Vijaykumar S -- Monsalve, Gabriela C -- Hu, Eileen -- Whelan, Stephen A -- Wang, Jennifer X -- Jung, Gwanghyun -- Solis, Gregory M -- Fazlollahi, Farbod -- Kaweeteerawat, Chitrada -- Quach, Austin -- Nili, Mahta -- Krall, Abby S -- Godwin, Hilary A -- Chang, Helena R -- Faull, Kym F -- Guo, Feng -- Jiang, Meisheng -- Trauger, Sunia A -- Saghatelian, Alan -- Braas, Daniel -- Christofk, Heather R -- Clarke, Catherine F -- Teitell, Michael A -- Petrascheck, Michael -- Reue, Karen -- Jung, Michael E -- Frand, Alison R -- Huang, Jing -- DP2 OD008398/OD/NIH HHS/ -- P01 HL028481/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P40 OD010440/OD/NIH HHS/ -- T32 CA009120/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007104/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007185/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM008496/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jun 19;510(7505):397-401. doi: 10.1038/nature13264. Epub 2014 May 14.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Molecular Biology Institute, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA. ; Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA. ; 1] Molecular Biology Institute, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA [2]. ; 1] Department of Human Genetics, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA [2]. ; 1] Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA [2]. ; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA. ; Department of Biological Chemistry, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA. ; Department of Surgery, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA. ; Small Molecule Mass Spectrometry Facility, FAS Division of Science, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. ; Department of Chemical Physiology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; Pasarow Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences and Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA. ; Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA. ; Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA. ; Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. ; 1] Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA [2] UCLA Metabolomics Center, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA. ; 1] Molecular Biology Institute, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA [2] Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA. ; 1] Molecular Biology Institute, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA [2] Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA. ; 1] Molecular Biology Institute, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA [2] Department of Human Genetics, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA. ; 1] Molecular Biology Institute, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA [2] Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24828042" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Caenorhabditis elegans/*drug effects ; Cell Line ; Enzyme Activation/drug effects ; Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology ; Gene Knockdown Techniques ; HEK293 Cells ; Humans ; Jurkat Cells ; Ketoglutaric Acids/*pharmacology ; Longevity/drug effects/genetics/*physiology ; Mice ; Mitochondrial Proton-Translocating ATPases/genetics/*metabolism ; Protein Binding ; TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-05-05
    Description: Transposable elements (TEs) and DNA repeats are commonly targeted by DNA and histone methylation to achieve epigenetic gene silencing. We isolated mutations in two Arabidopsis genes, AtMORC1 and AtMORC6, which cause derepression of DNA-methylated genes and TEs but no losses of DNA or histone methylation. AtMORC1 and AtMORC6 are members of the conserved Microrchidia (MORC) adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) family, which are predicted to catalyze alterations in chromosome superstructure. The atmorc1 and atmorc6 mutants show decondensation of pericentromeric heterochromatin, increased interaction of pericentromeric regions with the rest of the genome, and transcriptional defects that are largely restricted to loci residing in pericentromeric regions. Knockdown of the single MORC homolog in Caenorhabditis elegans also impairs transgene silencing. We propose that the MORC ATPases are conserved regulators of gene silencing in eukaryotes.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3376212/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3376212/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Moissiard, Guillaume -- Cokus, Shawn J -- Cary, Joshua -- Feng, Suhua -- Billi, Allison C -- Stroud, Hume -- Husmann, Dylan -- Zhan, Ye -- Lajoie, Bryan R -- McCord, Rachel Patton -- Hale, Christopher J -- Feng, Wei -- Michaels, Scott D -- Frand, Alison R -- Pellegrini, Matteo -- Dekker, Job -- Kim, John K -- Jacobsen, Steven E -- F32 GM100617/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- F32GM100617/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM007185/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM075060/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM088565/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM60398/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- HG003143/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM075060/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM088565/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG003143/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R37 GM060398/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Jun 15;336(6087):1448-51. doi: 10.1126/science.1221472. Epub 2012 May 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular, Cell, and Developmental Biology, University of California at Los Angeles, Terasaki Life Sciences Building, 610 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095-723905, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22555433" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adenosine Triphosphatases/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Animals ; Arabidopsis/enzymology/*genetics/*metabolism ; Arabidopsis Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Caenorhabditis elegans ; Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Centromere ; DNA Methylation ; DNA Transposable Elements ; *Gene Silencing ; Genes, Plant ; Heterochromatin/*metabolism/ultrastructure ; Histones/metabolism ; Methylation ; Mutation ; RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism ; Transcription, Genetic ; Transgenes ; Up-Regulation
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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