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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-05-15
    Description: The Dawn spacecraft targeted 4 Vesta, believed to be a remnant intact protoplanet from the earliest epoch of solar system formation, based on analyses of howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED) meteorites that indicate a differentiated parent body. Dawn observations reveal a giant basin at Vesta's south pole, whose excavation was sufficient to produce Vesta-family asteroids (Vestoids) and HED meteorites. The spatially resolved mineralogy of the surface reflects the composition of the HED meteorites, confirming the formation of Vesta's crust by melting of a chondritic parent body. Vesta's mass, volume, and gravitational field are consistent with a core having an average radius of 107 to 113 kilometers, indicating sufficient internal melting to segregate iron. Dawn's results confirm predictions that Vesta differentiated and support its identification as the parent body of the HEDs.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Russell, C T -- Raymond, C A -- Coradini, A -- McSween, H Y -- Zuber, M T -- Nathues, A -- De Sanctis, M C -- Jaumann, R -- Konopliv, A S -- Preusker, F -- Asmar, S W -- Park, R S -- Gaskell, R -- Keller, H U -- Mottola, S -- Roatsch, T -- Scully, J E C -- Smith, D E -- Tricarico, P -- Toplis, M J -- Christensen, U R -- Feldman, W C -- Lawrence, D J -- McCoy, T J -- Prettyman, T H -- Reedy, R C -- Sykes, M E -- Titus, T N -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 May 11;336(6082):684-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1219381.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567, USA. ctrussell@igpp.ucla.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22582253" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-12-12
    Description: The earliest history of the Moon is poorly preserved in the surface geologic record due to the high flux of impactors, but aspects of that history may be preserved in subsurface structures. Application of gravity gradiometry to observations by the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission results in the identification of a population of linear gravity anomalies with lengths of hundreds of kilometers. Inversion of the gravity anomalies indicates elongated positive-density anomalies that are interpreted to be ancient vertical tabular intrusions or dikes formed by magmatism in combination with extension of the lithosphere. Crosscutting relationships support a pre-Nectarian to Nectarian age, preceding the end of the heavy bombardment of the Moon. The distribution, orientation, and dimensions of the intrusions indicate a globally isotropic extensional stress state arising from an increase in the Moon's radius by 0.6 to 4.9 kilometers early in lunar history, consistent with predictions of thermal models.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C -- Asmar, Sami W -- Head, James W 3rd -- Kiefer, Walter S -- Konopliv, Alexander S -- Lemoine, Frank G -- Matsuyama, Isamu -- Mazarico, Erwan -- McGovern, Patrick J -- Melosh, H Jay -- Neumann, Gregory A -- Nimmo, Francis -- Phillips, Roger J -- Smith, David E -- Solomon, Sean C -- Taylor, G Jeffrey -- Wieczorek, Mark A -- Williams, James G -- Zuber, Maria T -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Feb 8;339(6120):675-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1231753. Epub 2012 Dec 5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Geophysics and Center for Space Resources, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401, USA. jcahanna@mines.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23223393" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2012-12-12
    Description: High-resolution gravity data obtained from the dual Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft show that the bulk density of the Moon's highlands crust is 2550 kilograms per cubic meter, substantially lower than generally assumed. When combined with remote sensing and sample data, this density implies an average crustal porosity of 12% to depths of at least a few kilometers. Lateral variations in crustal porosity correlate with the largest impact basins, whereas lateral variations in crustal density correlate with crustal composition. The low-bulk crustal density allows construction of a global crustal thickness model that satisfies the Apollo seismic constraints, and with an average crustal thickness between 34 and 43 kilometers, the bulk refractory element composition of the Moon is not required to be enriched with respect to that of Earth.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wieczorek, Mark A -- Neumann, Gregory A -- Nimmo, Francis -- Kiefer, Walter S -- Taylor, G Jeffrey -- Melosh, H Jay -- Phillips, Roger J -- Solomon, Sean C -- Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C -- Asmar, Sami W -- Konopliv, Alexander S -- Lemoine, Frank G -- Smith, David E -- Watkins, Michael M -- Williams, James G -- Zuber, Maria T -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Feb 8;339(6120):671-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1231530. Epub 2012 Dec 5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Universite Paris Diderot, Case 7071, Lamarck A, 5, rue Thomas Mann, 75205 Paris Cedex 13, France. wieczor@ipgp.fr〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23223394" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2012-12-12
    Description: Spacecraft-to-spacecraft tracking observations from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) have been used to construct a gravitational field of the Moon to spherical harmonic degree and order 420. The GRAIL field reveals features not previously resolved, including tectonic structures, volcanic landforms, basin rings, crater central peaks, and numerous simple craters. From degrees 80 through 300, over 98% of the gravitational signature is associated with topography, a result that reflects the preservation of crater relief in highly fractured crust. The remaining 2% represents fine details of subsurface structure not previously resolved. GRAIL elucidates the role of impact bombardment in homogenizing the distribution of shallow density anomalies on terrestrial planetary bodies.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zuber, Maria T -- Smith, David E -- Watkins, Michael M -- Asmar, Sami W -- Konopliv, Alexander S -- Lemoine, Frank G -- Melosh, H Jay -- Neumann, Gregory A -- Phillips, Roger J -- Solomon, Sean C -- Wieczorek, Mark A -- Williams, James G -- Goossens, Sander J -- Kruizinga, Gerhard -- Mazarico, Erwan -- Park, Ryan S -- Yuan, Dah-Ning -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Feb 8;339(6120):668-71. doi: 10.1126/science.1231507. Epub 2012 Dec 5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307, USA. zuber@mit.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23223395" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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