Cancers are a major challenge to health worldwide. Spinel ferrites have attracted attention due to their broad theranostic applications. This study aimed at investigating the antimicrobial, antibiofilm, and anticancer activities of ebselen (Eb) and cerium-nanoparticles (Ce-NPs) in the form of ZnCexFe2−XO4 on human breast and colon cancer cell lines. Bioassays of the cytotoxic concentrations of Eb and ZnCexFe2−XO4, oxidative stress and inflammatory milieu, autophagy, apoptosis, related signalling effectors, the distribution of cells through the cell-cycle phases, and the percentage of cells with apoptosis were evaluated in cancer cell lines. Additionally, the antimicrobial and antibiofilm potential have been investigated against different pathogenic microbes. The ZOI, and MIC results indicated that ZnCexFe2−XO4; X = 0.06 specimen reduced the activity of a wide range of bacteria and unicellular fungi at low concentration including P. aeruginosa (9.5 mm; 6.250 µg/mL), S. aureus (13.2 mm; 0.390 µg/mL), and Candida albicans (13.5 mm; 0.195 µg/mL). Reaction mechanism determination indicated that after ZnCexFe2−xO4; X = 0.06 treatment, morphological differences in S.aureus were apparent with complete lysis of bacterial cells, a concomitant decrease in the viable number, and the growth of biofilm was inhibited. The combination of Eb with ZFO or ZnCexFe2−XO4 with γ-radiation exposure showed marked anti-proliferative efficacy in both cell lines, through modulating the oxidant/antioxidant machinery imbalance, restoring the fine-tuning of redox status, and promoting an anti-inflammatory milieu to prevent cancer progression, which may be a valuable therapeutic approach to cancer therapy and as a promising antimicrobial agent to reduce the pathogenic potential of the invading microbes.
Chemistry and Pharmacology