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  • 1
    Keywords: Medicine ; Pharmaceutical technology ; Biomedicine ; Pharmaceutical Sciences/Technology ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Overview of multiparticulates -- Characterization of inert pellets for drug layering -- The science and practice of extrusion-spheronization -- Fluid bed technology, process robustness and scale-up -- Solution and suspension drug layering on inert pellets -- Dry powder layering on pellets Mini-tabs; versatile multiparticulate options for oral drug delivery -- Science and practice of microencapsulation technology -- Use of multiparticulate systems for fixed dose combination drug delivery -- Dissolution testing consideration of multiparticulate system -- Taste masking of multiparticulate systems -- Multiparticulate systems for pediatrics -- Application of methacrylic acid copolymers polymers for oral multiparticulate drug delivery -- Ethylcellulose applications on multiparticulate dosage forms -- Multi-unit particulate systems (MUPS) -- In-line particle size characterization of multipartuclate systems -- In-vivo characterization of multiparticulate systems
    Abstract: Authored by leading experts from academia, users and manufacturers, this book provides an authoritative account of the science and technology involved in multiparticulate drug delivery systems which offer superior clinical and technical advantages over many other specialized approaches in drug delivery. The book will cover market trends, potential benefits and formulation challenges for various types of multiparticulate systems. Drug solubility, dose, chemistry and therapeutic indications as well as excipient suitability coupled with manufacturing methods will be fully covered. Key approaches for taste-masking, delayed release and extended release of multiparticulates systems are of significant interest, especially their in-vivo and in-vitro performance. In addition, the principles of scale-up, QbD, and regulatory aspects of common materials used in this technology will be explained, as well as recent advances in materials and equipment enabling robust, flexible and cost-effective manufacture. Case studies illustrating best practices will also make the book a valuable resource to pharmaceutical scientists in industry and academia
    Pages: XII, 396 p. 156 illus., 100 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9781493970124
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  • 2
    Keywords: brain ; CELL ; DOWN-REGULATION ; REPRESSION ; ASTROCYTIC GLIOMAS
    Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Measuring concentrations of the differentiation-promoting hormone retinoic acid (RA) in glioblastoma tissues would help to understand the reason why RA treatment has been inefficient in clinical trials involving brain tumor patients. Here, we apply a recently established extraction and measurement protocol to screen glioblastoma tissues for the levels of the RA precursor retinol and biologically active RA. Combining this approach with mRNA analyses of 26 tumors and 8 normal brains, we identify a multifaceted disturbance of RA synthesis in glioblastoma, involving multiple aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family and retinol dehydrogenase enzymes. Through database studies and methylation analyses, we narrow down chromosomal deletions and aberrant promoter hypermethylation as potential mechanisms accounting for these alterations. Employing chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses and cell-culture studies, we further show that chromatin at RA target genes is poised to RA substitution, but most glioblastoma cell cultures are completely resistant to RA treatment. This paradoxical RA response is unrelated to alternative RA signaling through the fatty acid-binding protein 5/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta axis. Our data suggest a multifaceted disturbance of RA synthesis in glioblastoma and contribute to reconsider current RA treatment strategies. GLIA 2015;63:1850-1859.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25944104
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  • 3
    Abstract: Importance: Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Current estimates on the burden of cancer are needed for cancer control planning. Objective: To estimate mortality, incidence, years lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 32 cancers in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015. Evidence Review: Cancer mortality was estimated using vital registration system data, cancer registry incidence data (transformed to mortality estimates using separately estimated mortality to incidence [MI] ratios), and verbal autopsy data. Cancer incidence was calculated by dividing mortality estimates through the modeled MI ratios. To calculate cancer prevalence, MI ratios were used to model survival. To calculate YLDs, prevalence estimates were multiplied by disability weights. The YLLs were estimated by multiplying age-specific cancer deaths by the reference life expectancy. DALYs were estimated as the sum of YLDs and YLLs. A sociodemographic index (SDI) was created for each location based on income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility. Countries were categorized by SDI quintiles to summarize results. Findings: In 2015, there were 17.5 million cancer cases worldwide and 8.7 million deaths. Between 2005 and 2015, cancer cases increased by 33%, with population aging contributing 16%, population growth 13%, and changes in age-specific rates contributing 4%. For men, the most common cancer globally was prostate cancer (1.6 million cases). Tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer was the leading cause of cancer deaths and DALYs in men (1.2 million deaths and 25.9 million DALYs). For women, the most common cancer was breast cancer (2.4 million cases). Breast cancer was also the leading cause of cancer deaths and DALYs for women (523000 deaths and 15.1 million DALYs). Overall, cancer caused 208.3 million DALYs worldwide in 2015 for both sexes combined. Between 2005 and 2015, age-standardized incidence rates for all cancers combined increased in 174 of 195 countries or territories. Age-standardized death rates (ASDRs) for all cancers combined decreased within that timeframe in 140 of 195 countries or territories. Countries with an increase in the ASDR due to all cancers were largely located on the African continent. Of all cancers, deaths between 2005 and 2015 decreased significantly for Hodgkin lymphoma (-6.1% [95% uncertainty interval (UI), -10.6% to -1.3%]). The number of deaths also decreased for esophageal cancer, stomach cancer, and chronic myeloid leukemia, although these results were not statistically significant. Conclusion and Relevance: As part of the epidemiological transition, cancer incidence is expected to increase in the future, further straining limited health care resources. Appropriate allocation of resources for cancer prevention, early diagnosis, and curative and palliative care requires detailed knowledge of the local burden of cancer. The GBD 2015 study results demonstrate that progress is possible in the war against cancer. However, the major findings also highlight an unmet need for cancer prevention efforts, including tobacco control, vaccination, and the promotion of physical activity and a healthy diet.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27918777
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  • 4
    Abstract: BioModels serves as a central repository of mathematical models representing biological processes. It offers a platform to make mathematical models easily shareable across the systems modelling community, thereby supporting model reuse. To facilitate hosting a broader range of model formats derived from diverse modelling approaches and tools, a new infrastructure for BioModels has been developed that is available at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/biomodels. This new system allows submitting and sharing of a wide range of models with improved support for formats other than SBML. It also offers a version-control backed environment in which authors and curators can work collaboratively to curate models. This article summarises the features available in the current system and discusses the potential benefit they offer to the users over the previous system. In summary, the new portal broadens the scope of models accepted in BioModels and supports collaborative model curation which is crucial for model reproducibility and sharing.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 29106614
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0304-4165
    Keywords: Anti-DNA antibody ; DNA adduct ; DNA crosslink ; DNA-psoralen ; Psoralen ; anti-DNA-psoralen antibody
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Polyhedron 5 (1986), S. 1197-1199 
    ISSN: 0277-5387
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0888-7543
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Animal Behaviour 33 (1985), S. 1367-1369 
    ISSN: 0003-3472
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Key words Acetylene inhibition ; Soil core technique ; Denitrification ; Irrigation ; Nitrous oxide entrapment
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract  Two versions of the acetylene inhibition (AI)/soil core method were compared for the measurement of denitrification loss from an irrigated wheat field receiving urea-N at a rate of 100 kg ha–1. With AI/soil core method A, the denitrification rate was measured by analysing the headspace N2O, followed by estimation of N2O dissolved in the solution phase using Bunsen absorption coefficients. With AI/soil core method B, N2O entrapped in the soil was measured in addition to that released from soil cores into the headspace of incubation vessels. In addition, the two methods were also compared for measurement of the soil respiration rate. Of the total N2O produced, 6–77% (average 40%) remained entrapped in the soil, whereas for CO2, the corresponding figures ranged from 12–65% (average 44%). The amount of the entrapped N2O was significantly correlated with the water-filled pore space (WFPS) and with the N2O concentration in the headspace, whereas CO2 entrapment was dependent on the headspace CO2 concentration but not on the WFPS. Due to the entrapment of N2O and CO2 in soil, the denitrification rate on several (18 of the 41) sampling dates, and soil respiration rate on almost all (27 of the 30) sampling dates were significantly higher with method B compared to method A. Averaged across sampling dates, the denitrification rate measured with method B (0.30 kg N ha–1 day–1) was twice the rate measured with method A, whereas the soil respiration rate measured with method B (34.9 kg C ha–1 day–1) was 1.6 times the rate measured with method A. Results of this study suggest that the N2O and CO2 entrapped in soil should also be measured to ensure the recovery of the gaseous products of denitrification by the soil core method.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Eye development ; Glycoconjugates ; Histochemistry ; Immunohistochemistry ; Lectins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Lectin histochemical methods and immunohistochemical techniques have been utilized to investigate and partially characterize glycoconjugates in the developing eye. Peanut-lectin-binding sites associated with radial glial cells were found in the diencephalon. In the optic primordia, binding sites associated with radial glia were masked by terminal sialic acid, and only reacted with peanut lectin when pretreated with sialidase. This finding indicates that glycoconjugates associated with diencephalic radial glia contain terminal galactose-β-(1→3)N-acetyl galactosamine, but glycoconjugates associated with radial glia in the optic primordia contain sialic acid→galactose-β(1→3)N-acetyl galactosamine. The selective distribution of galactose, N-acetyl galactosamine and fucose associated with radial glial cells has also been demonstrated. We postulate that these distributions mediate the shaping of the developing eye.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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