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  • 1
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CANCER ; GROWTH ; GROWTH-FACTOR ; proliferation ; tumor ; CELL-PROLIFERATION ; PATHWAY ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; PROTEIN ; TUMORS ; RELEASE ; PATIENT ; BINDING ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; single nucleotide polymorphism ; VARIANTS ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; hormone ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; cancer risk ; case-control studies ; SOMATOSTATIN ; CANCER PATIENTS ; nutrition ; FACTOR-I ; BINDING PROTEIN ; SERUM ; SINGLE ; IGF-I ; BINDING-PROTEIN ; case-control study ; ASSOCIATIONS ; RE ; VARIANT ; SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; cell proliferation ; development ; GROWTH-FACTOR-I ; BINDING PROTEIN-3 ; LEVEL ; case control studies ; GENOTYPE DATA ; FACTOR (IGF)-I ; PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; IGFBP3 ; insulin-like growth factor ; PLASMA-LEVELS ; SERUM-LEVELS
    Abstract: Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) stimulates cell proliferation and can enhance the development of tumors in different organs. Epidemiologic studies have shown that an elevated level of circulating IGF-I is associated to increased risk of breast cancer as well as other cancers. Genetic variants affecting the release or biological action of growth hormone (GH), the main stimulator of IGF-I production, may predict circulating levels of IGF-I and have an effect on cancer risk. We tested this hypothesis with a large case-control study of 807 breast cancer patients and 1,588 matched control subjects nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. We genotyped 22 common single nucleotide polymorphisms in 10 genes involved in GH production and action (GHRH, GHRHR, SST, SSTR1-SSTR5, POU1F1, and GH1), and in parallel, we measured serum levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3, its major binding protein, in samples of cases and controls. SST and SSTR2 polymorphisms showed weak but statistically significant associations with breast cancer risk. SSTR5 polymorphisms were associated with IGF-I levels, whereas one polymorphism in GHRHR and one in POU1F1 were associated with IGFBP-3 levels. Our conclusion is that common genetic variation in the GH synthesis pathway, as measured by single nucleotide polymorphisms selected in the present study, is not a major determinant of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 circulating levels, and it does not play a major role in altering breast cancer risk
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16214911
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; BLOOD ; EXPOSURE ; RISK ; BINDING ; ASSOCIATION ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; hormone ; HEALTH ; WOMEN ; DIETARY ; UNITED-STATES ; ALCOHOL ; ALCOHOL-CONSUMPTION ; CONSUMPTION ; EPIC ; nutrition ; QUESTIONNAIRE ; IMMUNOASSAYS ; immunoassay ; LIFE-STYLE FACTORS ; dehydroepiandrosterone ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; SERUM ; ONCOLOGY ; RE ; EPIC PROJECT ; LEVEL ; methods ; PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; SERUM-LEVELS ; alcohol consumption ; PREMENOPAUSAL ; prospective ; BINDING GLOBULIN ; CIRCULATING LEVELS ; intake ; steroids ; HORMONE CONCENTRATIONS ; alcohol intake ; ESTRADIOL LEVELS ; post-menopausal women ; pre-menopausal ; SERUM HORMONE CONCENTRATIONS ; sex steroids
    Abstract: Objective Women with a moderate intake of alcohol have higher concentrations of sex steroids in serum, and higher risk of developing breast cancer, compared to non-drinkers. In the present study, we investigate the relationships between alcohol consumption and serum levels of sex steroids and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in 790 pre- and 1,291 post-menopausal women, who were part of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods Serum levels of testosterone (T), androstenedione (Delta(4)), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), estrone (E-1), estradiol (E-2) and SHBG were measured by direct immunoassays. Free T (fT) and free E-2 (fE(2)) were calculated according to mass action laws. Current alcohol intake exposure to alcohol was assessed from dietary questionnaires. Results Pre-menopausal women who consumed more than 25 g/day of alcohol had about 30% higher DHEAS, T and fT, 20% higher Delta(4) and about 40% higher E-1, concentrations compared to women who were non-consumers. E-2, fE(2) and SHBG concentrations showed no association with current alcohol intake. In post-menopausal women, DHEAS, fT, T, Delta(4), and E-1 concentrations were between 10% and 20% higher in women who consumed more than 25 g/day of alcohol compared to non-consumers. E-2 or fE(2) were not associated with alcohol intake at all. SHBG levels were about 15% lower in alcohol consumers compared to non-consumers. Conclusion This study supports the hypothesis of an influence of alcohol intake on sex hormone concentrations in blood
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16933054
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; MODEL ; MODELS ; THERAPY ; FOLLOW-UP ; COHORT ; cohort studies ; EXPOSURE ; RISK ; RISKS ; INDEX ; ASSOCIATION ; NO ; hormone ; HEALTH ; WOMEN ; HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY ; cancer risk ; FIBER ; MEASUREMENT ERROR ; DIET ; DIETARY ; FAT ; European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition ; nutrition ; AUSTRALIA ; ENDOMETRIAL CANCER ; RELATIVE RISK ; dietary fiber ; insulin ; IGF-I ; ASSOCIATIONS ; ENDOMETRIAL ; THERAPIES ; ENERGY-INTAKE ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; LEVEL ; INTERVAL ; USA ; prospective ; INSULIN SENSITIVITY ; VARIABLES ; CANCER-RISK ; C-PEPTIDE ; FOODS ; Nutrition Assessment ; postmenopausal ; DIANA RANDOMIZED-TRIAL ; dietary carbohydrates ; endometrial neoplasms ; glycemic index ; IOWA WOMENS HEALTH
    Abstract: The associations of dietary total carbohydrates, overall glycemic index, total dietary glycemic load, total sugars, total starch, and total fiber with endometrial cancer risk were analyzed among 288,428 women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort (1992-2004), including 710 incident cases diagnosed during a mean 6.4 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. There were no statistically significant associations with endometrial cancer risk for increasing quartile intakes of any of the exposure variables. However, in continuous models calibrated by using 24-hour recall values, the multivariable relative risks were 1.61 (95% confidence interval: 1.06, 2.45) per 100 g/day of total carbohydrates, 1.40 (95% confidence interval: 0.99, 1.99) per 50 units/day of total dietary glycemic load, and 1.36 (95% confidence interval: 1.05, 1.76) per 50 g/day of total sugars. These associations were stronger among women who had never used postmenopausal hormone therapy compared with ever users (total carbohydrates P-heterogeneity = 0.04). Data suggest no association of overall glycemic index, total starch, and total fiber with risk, and a possible modest positive association of total carbohydrates, total dietary glycemic load, and total sugars with risk, particularly among never users of hormone replacement therapy
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17670911
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; carcinoma ; Germany ; FOLLOW-UP ; INFORMATION ; COHORT ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; RISK ; INFECTION ; RISK-FACTORS ; ASSOCIATION ; HEALTH ; REDUCED RISK ; risk factors ; cancer risk ; RECRUITMENT ; DIET ; STOMACH ; adenocarcinoma ; case-control studies ; TOBACCO ; ALCOHOL ; CARDIA ; EPIC ; ESOPHAGUS ; GASTRIC-CANCER ; HELICOBACTER-PYLORI ; nutrition ; STOMACH-CANCER ; case-control study ; ASSOCIATIONS ; DIGESTIVE-TRACT ; gastric cancer ; LEVEL ; case control studies ; INTERVAL ; methods ; PROFILES ; prospective ; EVALUATE ; odds ratio ; RISK-FACTOR ; CANCER-RISK ; Helicobacter pylori ; cardia cancer ; socioeconomic position
    Abstract: Objectives To evaluate the association of socioeconomic position with adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus and stomach. Methods The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort comprises about 520000 participants mostly aged 35-70 years. Information on diet and lifestyle was collected at recruitment. After an average follow-up of 6.5 years, 268 cases with adenocarcinoma of the stomach and 56 of the oesophagus were confirmed. We examined the effect of socioeconomic position on cancer risk by means of educational data and a computed Relative Index of Inequality (RII). In a nested case-control study, adjustment for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection was performed. Results Higher education was significantly associated with a reduced risk of gastric cancer [vs lowest level of education, hazard ratio (HR): 0.64, 95% Confidence intervals (CI): 0.43-0.981. This effect was more pronounced for cancer of the cardia (HR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.20-0.89) as compared to non-cardia gastric cancer (HR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.36-1.22). Additionally, the inverse association of educational level and gastric cancer was stronger for cases with intestinal (extreme categories, HR: 0.13, 95% CI: 0.04-0.44) rather than diffuse histological subtype (extreme categories, HR: 0.71 95% CI: 0.37-1.40). In the nested case-control study, inverse but statistically non-significant associations were found after additional adjustment for H. pylori infection [highest vs lowest level of education: Odds ratio (OR) 0.53, 95% CI: 0.24-1.18]. Educational level was non-significantly, inversely associated with carcinoma of the oesophagus. Conclusion A higher socioeconomic position was associated with a reduced risk of gastric adenocarcinoma, which was strongest for cardia cancer or intestinal histological subtype, suggesting different risk profiles according to educational level. These effects appear to be explained only partially by established risk factors
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17227779
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  • 5
    Keywords: CANCER ; BLOOD ; Germany ; COHORT ; RISK ; MICE ; ASSOCIATION ; BREAST-CANCER ; hormone ; AGE ; ovarian cancer ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; WOMEN ; cancer risk ; case-control studies ; VALIDITY ; nutrition ; dehydroepiandrosterone ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; SERUM ; case-control study ; REGRESSION ; ASSOCIATIONS ; DETERMINANTS ; development ; LEVEL ; case control studies ; SERUM-LEVELS ; SULFATE ; HORMONES ; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE-SULFATE ; TESTOSTERONE ; prospective ; STEROID-HORMONES ; INCREASED RISK ; odds ratio ; CANCER-RISK ; OVARIAN ; BODY-MASS-INDEX
    Abstract: Few epidemiologic studies have examined the hypothesis that circulating androgens are involved in the development of ovarian cancer. We investigated the association between prediagnostic serum levels of androgens and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and ovarian cancer risk in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. One hundred and ninety-two ovarian cancer cases and 346 matched controls not using exogenous hormones at baseline blood donation were eligible for the study. Serum levels of testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and SHBG were measured by direct immunoassays. Free testosterone (fT) was calculated according to mass action laws. Multivariate conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios adjusted for possible confounders. Overall, there was no association between serum concentrations of androgens or SHBG and ovarian cancer risk. In postmenopausal women, fT concentrations were inversely related to risk [highest versus lowest tertile odds ratio 0.45 (0.24-0.86); P-trend = 0-01]. Among women diagnosed before the age of 55 years, there was a negative association with SHBG and a positive association with fT and ovarian cancer risk, although these associations were not statistically significant. The present study suggests that circulating androgens and SHBG levels are not strongly associated with ovarian cancer risk, although levels of fT may be associated with an increased risk among women diagnosed at relatively young age. The heterogeneity of results on the associations of fT with ovarian cancer risk in postmenopausal women deserves further investigation
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17220328
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  • 6
    Keywords: CANCER ; CELLS ; CELL ; Germany ; MODEL ; MODELS ; FOLLOW-UP ; SYSTEM ; cohort study ; DISEASE ; DISEASES ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; RISK ; RISK-FACTORS ; ASSOCIATION ; NO ; LYMPHOMA ; HEALTH ; WOMEN ; etiology ; risk factors ; DIETARY ; UNITED-STATES ; ALCOHOL-CONSUMPTION ; CONSUMPTION ; FRUIT ; nutrition ; VEGETABLES ; CALIBRATION ; B-CELL LYMPHOMA ; MULTIPLE-MYELOMA ; NON-HODGKINS-LYMPHOMA ; ONCOLOGY ; DIETARY FACTORS ; ASSOCIATIONS ; IMMUNE-SYSTEM ; non-Hodgkin lymphoma ; INTERVAL ; FRUITS ; methods ; function ; prospective ; prospective study ; RISK-FACTOR ; HODGKIN LYMPHOMA ; B-CELL ; N-NITROSO COMPOUNDS ; DRINKING-WATER NITRATE
    Abstract: Introduction Lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of malignant diseases of cells of the immune system. The best-established risk factors are related to dys-regulation of immune function, and evidence suggests that factors such as dietary or lifestyle habits may be involved in the etiology. Material and methods In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 849 lymphoma cases were identified in a median follow-up period of 6.4 years. Fruit and vegetable consumption was estimated from validated dietary questionnaires. Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the association between fruit and vegetable intake with the risk of lymphomas overall and subentities. Results There was no overall association between total fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of lymphoma [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78-1.15 comparing highest with lowest quartile]. However, the risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) tended to be lower in participants with a high intake of total vegetables (HR = 0.49, 95% CI 0.23-1.02). Conclusion In this large prospective study, an inverse associations between fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of lymphomas overall could not be confirmed. Associations with lymphoma subentities such as DLBCL warrant further investigation
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17443415
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  • 7
    Keywords: CANCER ; BLOOD ; Germany ; RISK ; METABOLISM ; ASSOCIATION ; BREAST-CANCER ; DESIGN ; NUMBER ; AGE ; WOMEN ; REPRODUCIBILITY ; etiology ; cancer risk ; EPIC ; nutrition ; ESTRADIOL ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; SERUM ; ONCOLOGY ; REGRESSION ; ESTROGEN ; LEVEL ; analysis ; PHASE ; PREMENOPAUSAL ; TESTOSTERONE ; prospective ; STEROID-HORMONES ; VARIABLES ; CANCER-RISK ; BINDING GLOBULIN ; ENGLAND ; steroids ; SEX-HORMONES ; postmenopausal ; androgens ; FREE TESTOSTERONE ; ESTROGENS
    Abstract: Epidemiological data show that reproductive and hormonal factors are involved in the etiology of endometrial cancer, but there is little data on the association with endogenous sex hormone levels. We analyzed the association between prediagnostic serum concentrations of sex steroids and endometrial cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition using a nested case-control design of 247 incident endometrial cancer cases and 481 controls, matched on center, menopausal status, age, variables relating to blood collection, and, for premenopausal women, phase of menstrual cycle. Using conditional regression analysis, endometrial cancer risk among postmenopausal women was positively associated with increasing levels of total testosterone, free testosterone, estrone, total estradiol, and free estradiol. The odds ratios (ORs) for the highest versus lowest tertile were 2.66 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.50-4.72; P=0.002 for a continuous linear trend) for estrone, 2.07 (95% Cl 1.20-3.60; P=0.001) for estradiol, and 1.66 (95% Cl 0.98-2.82; P=0.001) for free estradiol. For total and free testosterone, ORs for the highest versus lowest tertile were 1.44 (95% Cl 0.88-2.36; P=0.05) and 2.05 (95% Cl 1.23-3.42; P=0.005) respectively. Androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were not associated with risk. Sex hormone-binding globulin was significantly inversely associated with risk (OR for the highest versus lowest tertile was 0.57, 95% Cl 0.34-0.95; P=0.004). In premenopausal women, serum sex hormone concentrations were not clearly associated with endometrial cancer risk, but numbers were too small to draw firm conclusions. In conclusion, relatively high blood concentrations of estrogens and free testosterone are associated with an increased endometrial cancer risk in postmenopausal women
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18509001
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  • 8
    Keywords: CANCER ; PROSTATE ; COHORT ; DISEASE ; RISK ; CELL-LINES ; ASSOCIATION ; ALPHA ; NO ; STAGE ; TRIAL ; prevention ; DESIGN ; DIFFERENCE ; PLASMA ; MEN ; smoking ; prostate cancer ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; cancer risk ; MULTIVARIATE ; case-control studies ; PREDICTORS ; EPIC ; nutrition ; NESTED CASE-CONTROL ; RELATIVE RISK ; VITAMIN-E ; case-control study ; GRADE ; SUPPLEMENTATION ; USA ; prospective ; CANCER-RISK ; ENGLAND ; SUBSEQUENT RISK ; DIETARY SELENIUM ; European Prospective Investigation into Cancer ; SERUM SELENIUM
    Abstract: Background: Some evidence indicates that a low selenium intake may be associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of plasma selenium concentration with subsequent prostate cancer risk and to examine this association by stage and grade of disease and other factors. Design: A nested case-control study was performed among men in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The association between plasma selenium concentration and prostate cancer risk was assessed in 959 men with incident prostate cancer and 1059 matched controls. Results: Overall, plasma selenium concentration was not associated with prostate cancer risk; the multivariate relative risk for men in the highest fifth of selenium concentration compared with the lowest fifth was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.70, 1.31; P for trend = 0.25). There were no significant differences in the association of plasma selenium with risk when analyzed by stage or grade of disease. Similarly, the association of selenium with risk did not differ by smoking status or by plasma alpha- or gamma-tocopherol concentration. Conclusion: Plasma selenium concentration was not associated with prostate cancer risk in this large cohort of European men. Am J Clin Nutr 2008; 88:1567-75
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19064517
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  • 9
    Keywords: CANCER ; CELLS ; AGENTS ; CELL ; MODEL ; MODELS ; neoplasms ; FOLLOW-UP ; SYSTEM ; COHORT ; cohort study ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; HISTORY ; incidence ; RISK ; INFECTION ; MECHANISM ; primary ; RISK-FACTORS ; mechanisms ; T cell ; T-CELL ; ASSOCIATION ; DISORDER ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; NO ; LYMPHOMA ; CARE ; DESIGN ; PLASMA ; AGE ; WOMEN ; etiology ; MEN ; risk factors ; leukemia ; Jun ; diabetes ; ABNORMALITIES ; INFECTIONS ; EPIC ; nutrition ; immunosuppression ; non-hodgkin's lymphoma ; CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC-LEUKEMIA ; MULTIPLE-MYELOMA ; VIRAL-INFECTION ; insulin ; MELLITUS ; AGENT ; AUTOIMMUNITY ; multiple myeloma ; DISORDERS ; MEDICAL HISTORY ; INCREASE ; T-CELL LYMPHOMA ; prospective studies ; methods ; SUBTYPES ; metabolic syndrome ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; prospective ; prospective study ; RISK-FACTOR ; CANCERS ; B-CELL ; ENGLAND ; ENVIRONMENTAL-FACTORS ; host ; INCREASES ; viral ; European Prospective Investigation into Cancer ; non-Hodgkin ; neoplasm ; INTERLEUKIN-6 GENE
    Abstract: Background Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms arising from the lymphopoietic system including a wide range of subtypes of either B-cell or T-cell lymphomas. The few established risk factors for the development of these neoplasms include viral infections and immunological abnormalities, but their etiology remains largely unknown. Evidence suggests that certain medical conditions may be linked, through immunosuppression, to the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Multiple myeloma is a neoplasm of plasma cells that accounts for approximately 15% of lymphopoietic cancers. Increases in the incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma in the past implicate environmental factors as potential causal agents. Design and Methods In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 1,213 histologically confirmed incident cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma (594 men; 619 women) were identified during a follow-up of 8.5 years. Cox proportional hazard models were used to explore the association between self-reported diabetes, diagnosed after 30 years of age, and the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma overall and multiple myeloma and various lymphoma subtypes. Results We found no association between a personal history of diabetes and the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma overall in men (HR: 1.28, 95% CI: 0.89-1.84), in women (HR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.41-1.24), or in men and women combined (HR: 1.09, 95% CI: 0.80-1.47). Among the B-non-Hodgkin's lymphoma subtypes, we observed a statistically significant increased risk of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (HR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.04-3.86) in men, but not in women (HR: 1.07, 95% CI: 0.33-3.43). Conclusions This prospective study did not provide evidence for a role of self-reported diabetes in the etiology of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma overall or multiple myeloma. We found an increased risk of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia among men with diabetes, but not among women. We hypothesize that diabetes may not play a causal role in the etiology of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, though the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of both disorders may include shared genetic, host and/or environmental susceptibility factors
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18443270
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  • 10
    Keywords: AGE, ALCOHOL, ASSOCIATION, BINDING, BINDING PROTEIN, BINDING-PROTEINS, biomarker, BIOMARKERS, BONE T
    Abstract: Circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF binding proteins (IGFBP) have been associated with the risk of several types of cancer. Dietary correlates of IGF-I and IGFBPs are not yet well established. The objective of this study was to assess the association between dietary intake and serum concentrations of IGF-I, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3 in a cross-sectional analysis of 4,731 men and women taking part in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Diet was assessed using country-specific validated dietary questionnaires. Serum concentrations of IGF-I, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 were measured, and the associations between diet and IGF-I and IGFBPs were assessed using multiple linear regression adjusting for sex, age, body mass index, smoking status, and alcohol and energy intake. Each I SD increment increase in total and dairy protein and calcium intake was associated with an increase in IGF-I concentration of 2.5%, 2.4%, and 3.3%, respectively (P for trend 〈0.001 for all) and a decrease in IGFBP-2 of 3.5%, 3.5%, and 5.4% (P for trend 〈0.001 for all), respectively. There were no significant associations between the intake of protein or calcium from nondairy sources and IGF-I. The results from this large cross-sectional analysis show that either the intake of dairy protein or calcium is an important dietary determinant of IGF-I and IGFBP-2 concentrations; however, we suggest that it is more likely to be protein from dairy products. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009;18(5):1333-40)
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19423514
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