PACS. 71.45.Lr Charge-density-wave systems – 75.30.Fv Spin-density waves – 72.15.Nj Collective modes (e.g., in one-dimensional conductors – 73.20.Mf Collective excitations (including excitons, polarons, plasmons and other charge-density excitations)
Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Abstract: We present a new effect that is possible for strongly correlated electrons in commensurate mesoscopic rings: the collective tunneling of electrons between classically equivalent configurations, corresponding to ordered states possessing charge and spin density waves (CDW, SDW) and charge separation (CS). Within an extended Hubbard model at half filling studied by exact numerical diagonalization, we demonstrate that the ground state phase diagram comprises, besides conventional critical lines separating states characterized by different orderings (e.g. CDW, SDW, CS), critical lines separating phases with the same ordering (e.g. CDW-CDW) but with different symmetries. While the former also exist in infinite systems, the latter are specific for mesoscopic systems and directly related to a collective tunnel effect. We emphasize that, in order to construct correctly a phase diagram for mesoscopic rings, the examination of CDW, SDW and CS correlation functions alone is not sufficient, and one should also consider the symmetry of the wave function that cannot be broken. We present examples demonstrating that the jumps in relevant physical properties at the conventional and new critical lines are of comparable magnitude. These transitions could be studied experimentally e.g. by optical absorption in mesoscopic systems. Possible candidates are cyclic molecules and ring-like nanostructures of quantum dots.
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