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  • 1
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  25. Jahrestagung der Retinologischen Gesellschaft; 20120601-20120602; Münster; DOC12rg48 /20120530/
    Publication Date: 2012-05-31
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Es wurde eine für Routinezwecke geeignete Feulgenreaktion für die cytophotometrische DNS-Bestimmung ausgearbeitet, die gegen geringe Schwankungen der Temperatur, der Säurekonzentration und der Zeitdauer der HCl-Hydrolyse weniger empfindlich ist als die 60°-Standardhydrolyse. Dazu wurden die Feulgen-Hydrolysekurven von alkohol-, formalin- und methanol-formalin-eisessigfixierten Hühnererythrocyten nach Behandlung mit 5 N, 4 N und 2 N HCl bei 28° C, bzw. mit 1 N HCl bei 60° C geprüft und miteinander verglichen. Als besonders brauchbar erwies sich die Fixierung mit 70%igem Isopropylalkohol (20 min Hydrolyse in 5 N HCl oder 45 min in 4 N HCl) und die MethanolFormalin-Eisessig-Fixierung (105 min Hydrolyse in 4 N HCl). Reine Formalinfixierung erwies sich als ungeeignet, da eine starke Kernschrumpfung mit Extinktionen größer als 0,75 beobachtet wurden. An alkoholfixierten Leberzellausstrichen wurde ein gleichartiger Verlauf der Hydrolysekurven von di-, tetra- und oktoploiden Leberzellkernen festgestellt. Die relativen Farbstoffmengen (AE-Werte) dieser Kerne verhielten sich bei allen geprüften Hydrolysezeiten wie 1∶2∶4.
    Notes: Summary A routine Feulgen procedure for quantitative cytophotometric absorption measurements of DNA at the integrating microdensitometer should be established, which is less alterable by minor deviations in temperature, acid concentration and in duration of hydrolysis than is the 60° C standard treatment. Feulgen hydrolysis curves of alcohol-, formalin- and methanol-formalin-glacialacidicacid-fixed fowl erythrocytes have been examined after hydrolysis in 5 N, 4 N and 2 N HCl at 28° C, as well as in 1 N HCl at 60° C. Fixation in 70% isopropylalcohol and hydrolysis in 5 N HCl for 20 minutes or in 4 N HCl for 45 minutes proved to be particularly useful. Fixation in a mixture of 85% methanol, 10% formalin and 5% glacialacidicacid gave good results, too, but hydrolysis time had to be chosen considerably longer for maximum staining (105 minutes in 4 N HCl). Formalin fixation proved not to be suitable because of a considerable shrinkage of the nuclei resulting in extinctions well above 0.75. Identical hydrolysis curves have been obtained for di-, tetra- and octoploid liver cell nuclei from alcohol-fixed liver smears. The relative dye contents (AE-values) of these nuclei were in the ratio 1∶2∶4 at all hydrolysis times examined.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Propionic acidemia ; Organic acidemias ; Organic acidurias ; Inherited disorders of the metabolism of organic acids ; 2-Methyl-3-oxovaleric acid ; Liver histology in propionic acidemia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Nach einer kurzen Erläuterung der biochemischen Grund-lagen wird am Beispiel eines eigenen Falles von Propionacidämie auf die Frühsymptomatik (vermehrte Schläfrigkeit, Muskelhypotonie, Trinkschwäche, Hypothermie, metabolische Acidose, Ketonurie, Erbrechen), die durchgeführten Therapieversuche, die Obduktionsbefunde und auf Urinuntersuchungen mit Hilfe der Gaschromatographie und der Gaschromatographie-Massenspektrometrie eingegangen. Diese Untersuchungen ergaben, daß neben den bei Propionacidämie bekanntermaßen im Urin ausgeschiedenen Metaboliten, wie Propion-, 3-Hydroxypropion- und Methylcitronensäure, auch 2-Methyl-3-oxovaleriansäure, das Kondensationsprodukt zweier Moleküle Propionyl-CoA, in nennenswertem Umfang synthetisiert und im Harn nachgewiesen werden kann.
    Notes: Abstract A new case of propionic acidemia is presented, paying special attention to the early symptoms of this disease, such as increased drowsiness, muscular hypotonia, poor feeding, hypothermia, metabolic acidosis, ketonuria and vomiting. Investigation by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed the excretion of fairly high amounts of 2-methyl-3-oxovaleric acid, a condensation product of two molecules of propionyl-CoA, as well as the known pathological metabolites such as propionic, 3-hydroxypropionic and methylcitric acids. Among the post mortem findings the histological studies of the liver were the most remarkable.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Glutaric aciduria type II ; Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency ; Organic aciduria
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Two male siblings suffering from a severe form of glutaric aciduria type II were studied. One patient died within one hour after birth, the other at the age of five days. Both patients presented with respiratory distress soon after birth. They had a variety of congenital morphologic abnormalities. One patient's outstanding “sweaty-feet” odour on the second day of life led to organic acid analysis of urine revealing massive lactic, glutaric, and ethylmalonic aciduria along with a high excretion of various other carboxylic acids and glycine conjugates of the branched chain carboxylic acids. The pattern of metabolites in serum and urine as well as results of degradation studies with various substrates in cultured fibroblasts were consistent with a defect in multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation. The morphological abnormalities are presented in a subsequent paper.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Multiple acyl-CoA-dehydrogenation deficiency ; Glutaric aciduria type II ; Congenital polycystic kidneys ; Fatty liver ; Cerebrocortical dysplasia ; Fetopathy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The post mortem and microscopic findings of two newborn male sibling of Turkish origin suffering from multiple acyl-CoA-dehydrogenation deficiency (glutaric aciduria type II) are reported in detail for the first time. The morphological disease pattern was strikingly identical in both siblings: enlarged bilateral polycystic kidneys, symmetric warty dysplasia of the cerebral cortex, and bile duct hypoplasia, cholestasis, siderosis and fatty degeneration of the liver were found in both infants. In addition, features of Potter syndrome (pulmonary hypoplasia and ‘Potter face’) were observed only in sibling I, and focal hypoplasia and dysplasia of pancreatic ducts only in sibling II. It appears to be a rather remote chance that the rare metabolic disorder accidently coincided with the equally rare developmental abnormality in both siblings. We believe it to be more likely that both conditions are pathogenetically related in that the accumulation of large quantities of carboxylic acids exerted their effect already in intrauterine life, probably leading to cellular damage and secondary developmental defects of the fetal kidneys, liver, pancreas and brain. From the nature of the observed morphological alterations we speculate that the injury did not occur until after cessation of organogenesis during the fetal period of intrauterine development.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die Akriflavin-Feulgen-Färbung (Böhm und Sprenger, 1968) und die Ethidiumbromid-Fluorochromierung nach vorausgehender Pepsinbehandlung (Göhde et al., 1971) ergeben an Leberzellausstrich-Präparaten weitgehend gleichartige DNS-Häufigkeitsverteilungen. Bei der zeitlich aufwendigen (220 min) Akriflavin-Färbung ist eine optimale Darstellung der Zellmorphologie und eine jahrelange Archivierung der Ausstrichpräparate möglich. Die rasch durchführbare Ethidiumbromid-Färbung (70 min) bietet nur nach schwerer Alteration der Zellmorphologie durch die vorausgehende Pepsinbehandlung eine selektive Darstellung der DNS. Eine Archivierung von Ausstrichpräparaten ist nur für 2 Tage möglich. Die schwere Alteration der Zellmorphologie ist besonders bei durchflußphotometrischen Prescreeninguntersuchungen in der gynäkologischen Krebsvorsorge nachteilig. Zellpopulationen, die zu einer zytophotometrischen Verdachtsdiagnose geführt haben, sind durch Verlust des Zytoplasmas und der Kernstruktur einer konventionellen morphologischen Diagnostik nicht mehr zugängig.
    Notes: Summary Acriflavine-Feulgen (Böhm und Sprenger, 1968) and ethidiumbromide fluorescence after previous pepsin digestion (Göhde et al., 1971) yield corresponding DNA distribution patterns when applied to liver smears. With the time-consuming acriflavine staining (220 min) the cellular morphology is best preserved and the stained specimen may be stored for long periods. The rapidly obtainable ethidiumbromide staining (70 min) results in a selective fluorescence of DNA only after heavy alteration of the cellular morphology by pepsin digestion. Storage of the material is only possible for two days. The heavily altered cellular morphology, however, is rather unfavorable for prescreening in automated cytology. Specimens that were found to be suspicious are no longer suitable for conventional cytological diagnosis, because they have lost their cytoplasm and nuclear chromatin structure.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Feulgen nuclear staining with pararosanilin-SO2 was combined with the ninhydrin-Schiff technique. The aldehyde groups converted from primary amino groups are stained with an acriflavine-Schiff reaction. This results in a red nuclear fluorescence and a bright yellow cytoplasmic and nuclear fluorescence. The combined fluorescence staining facilitates cytofluorometric determination of total protein and DNA in the same cell. The ninhydrin-Schiff reaction is affected by the fixation procedure and the duration of the ninhydrin reaction. Investigations with a model system showed that proportionality beween the fluorescence intensity of acriflavine and the amount of protein stained by the procedure was obtained after fixation with a fixation mixture suggested by Böhm et al. (1968) and a reaction with ninhydrin at 37° C for 10 h. The ninhydrin-Schiff reaction has no effect on the fluorescence intensity of cells previously treated with pararosanilin-Feulgen staining and it is not affected itself by this previous procedure. Testing this double fluorescence staining on cytology specimens taken from patients with gastric carcinoma and uterine cervial carcinoma, cancer cells were shown to have markedly increased protein and DNA contents compared with those of normal cells.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Suspensions of intact liver cells were prepared from 36 male NMRI mice of different age after perfusion of the liver with ice-cold calcium- and magnesium-free phosphate buffer (CMF). The suspensions of the isolated hepatocytes were smeared on slides, fixed, hydrolized and stained by fluorescent acriflavine-Schiff-Feulgen reaction. The number of nuclei per cell was determined in a phase-contrast microscope. Quantitative fluorescent cytophotometric measurements of nuclear Feulgen-DNA were performed on individual nuclei. At the age of 0.5 month, 55% of the hepatocytes were found to be mononuclear, 45% binuclear. In the animal groups aged 1 month, 1.5 months, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months, the percentage of binuclear hepatocytes remained constant at about 80%. Very few liver cells with 3 or 4 nuclei were detected. Feulgen-DNA-measurements revealed a predominance of 2c and 4c nuclei at ages 1 month and 1.5 months with logarithmic increase of 8c nuclei and a decrease of the 2c nuclei. From 1.5 months on 16c nuclei were found, which never exceeded 8%. When total DNA-ploidy of the hepatocytes was calculated similar kinetics at a higher ploidy level were observed. 2c hepatocytes existed in small percentages at very young ages up to 1.5 months, but were also occasionally found in older animals. With increasing age the number of 16c hepatocytes increased logarithmically with a concomitant decrease of the 4c hepatocytes. The percentage of 8c liver cells remained more or less constant. Few hepatocytes with a 32c total DNA content were found in mice aged 3 months and older. In one-year-old mice the mean DNA-ploidy was calculated to be 5.8c per liver nucleus and 10.0c per whole hepatocyte.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Phenobarbital was injected intraperitoneally into male white NMRI mice aged 0.5, 1, 1.5, 3, 6 and 12 months at a dose of 120 mg/kg body weight for 10 consecutive days. The 0.5 month-old mice did not tolerate the phenobarbital dose and died. The experimental animals and one of the controls were sacrificed 1, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20 days after phenobarbital administration was started. Liver weights were recorded and liver cells were isolated. The number of nuclei per cell was determined and the DNA-content of each single nucleus was measured by Feulgen fluorescence cytophotometry. Liver weights showed an increase of 25–30% during phenobarbital treatment and returned slowly to lower values after cessation of drug application. The hepatic enlargement was accompanied by an excessive and likewise reversible nuclear and whole cell DNA-polyploidization, i.e. polyploidization beyond the physiological age-dependent ploidy level; for example, mean values of 7.7 c per nucleus (versus 4.2 c in the controls) and 14.3 c for whole liver cells (versus 7.5 c in the controls) were found in 3 months-old animals after 5 days of treatment. As with the induction of microsomal enzymes, the augmentation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, and the increase of RNA- and protein-synthesis, excessive DNA-polyploidization of liver cell nuclei appears to be an expression of hepatocellular hypertrophy due to the functional or metabolic stress imposed upon the liver by large quantities of phenobarbital. After cessation of drug administration the abnormally high ploidy cells are eliminated-probably by necrobiosis — and the liver cells return to their normal age-dependent DNA-ploidy level. The liver cells of the one-month-old animals revealed the physiological polyploidization to be slightly inhibited. This is probably due to some toxic effect of phenobarbital. Phenobarbital did not alter the number of nuclei per liver cell.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Beim Vergleich des Feulgen-Farbgehaltes verschiedener Zellkerne (Leberzellen, Lymphozyten, Granulozyten und Spermien) traten nach Alkoholfixierung Abweichungen der gemessenen Feulgen-Werte von den nach dem Gesetz von der DNS- Konstanz zu erwartenden DNS-Gehalt dieser Kerne auf. Verglichen mit den Feulgen-Werten der diploiden Leberzellkerne ergaben Lympho- und Granulozyten bei allen Hydrolysezeiten zu niedrige (bis zu minus 20%), haploide Spermien im postmaximalen Hydrolysebereich zu hohe Feulgen-Werte (z. T. sogar höhere Werte als die diploiden Zellkerne). Innerhalb desselben Zelltypes wurden dagegen, auch beim Vergleich der verschiedenen Ploidiestufen der Leberkerne, keine Differenzen festgestellt. Da die an Leukozyten und Spermien beobachteten Abweichungen nach Methanol-Formalin-Eisessig-Fixierung nicht mehr auftraten und auch durch UV-absorptionscytophotometrische Messungen nicht bestätigt werden konnten, muß man annehmen, daß es sich um Proportionalitätsfehler handelt, die auf Hydrolyseunterschieden beruhen. Für die quantitative Feulgen-Cytophotometrie scheint daher die Methanol-Formalin-Eisessig-Fixierung besser geeignet zu sein als die Alkoholfixierung, bei deren Verwendung es leicht zu Proportionalitätsfehlern während der Feulgen-Hydrolyse kommen kann.
    Notes: Summary Comparing the Feulgen dye-content of different nuclei (liver cells, lymphocytes, granulocytes and sperms) after alcohol-fixation deviations were found between the measured Feulgen values and the DNA-content to be expected from the DNA-constancy law. The Feulgen values of lymphocytes and granulocytes proved to be lower (up to minus 20%) than those of diploid liver nuclei at all hydrolysis times, while in the postmaximal range of hydrolysis the values of the haploid sperms were too high (even higher than those of the diploid nuclei). Such differences did not appear when nuclei of the same cell type in different DNA- ploidy classes (liver nuclei) were compared. Those deviations of leucocytes and sperms were no longer found after fixation in methanol-formalin-glacial acetic acid and, in addition, could not be confirmed by UV-absorption measurements. For that reason we suppose them to be due to proportionality errors caused by variations in the hydrolytic behaviour of the different nucleoproteins. Thus fixation in methanol-formalin-glacial acetic acid seems to be more suitable for quantitative Feulgen measurements than alcohol-fixation, which may easily give rise to proportionality errors during Feulgen hydrolysis. Moreover, to avoid any false interpretation of Feulgen data we should suggest controll measurements using another independent method (f. e. UV-absorption), or — if this is impossible — to check the Feulgen values after different fixations and variant hydrolysis times (premaximal, maximal, postmaximal).
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