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  • 1
    Unknown
    Jena : G. Fischer
    Call number: C0300:147
    Keywords: Cytology ; Cytologie / Molekularbiologie
    Pages: 346 p. : ill.
    ISBN: 3-334-60958-8
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  • 2
    Unknown
    Heidelberg : Spektrum Akad. Verl.
    Call number: 01-Ausbildungsl:685
    Keywords: Genetics, Biochemical ; Genetics, Population ; Genetics, Human ; Genetic Techniques
    Pages: 447 p. : ill.
    Edition: 4., neubearb. Aufl.
    ISBN: 3-8274-0859-8
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: DNA fingerprinting of Trichoderma ; Trichoderma reesei ; RFLP ; Strain classification
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary We have analyzed nine different species of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma and three strains of T. reesei for the presence of hypervariable loci in their genomes by hybridization with simple repeat oligonucleotides [(CT)8, (GTG)5, and (GACA)4]. On the basis of the DNA-fingerprints obtained, the Trichoderma aggregate is re-classified into five groups: I (T. reesei, T. todica), II (T. polysporum, T. longibrachiatum, T. koningii, and T. pseudokoningii), III (T. virgatum), IV (T. saturnisporum) and V (T. harzianum). These results contradict the claim that T. reesei is a subspecies of T. longibrachiatum. Furthermore, hybridization with (CA)8 allowed a subdivision of group II, wherein T. pseudokoningii formed a subgroup, IIb, which is highly homologous with, but distinct from subgroup IIa. The results show that RFLP analysis may be used to re-classify the Trichoderma aggregate.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Mitochondrial DNA ; Chloroplast DNA ; Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis ; Chenopodium album
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Mitochondrial (mt) DNAs from several higher-plant species (Arabidopsis thaliana, Beta vulgaris, Brassica hirta, Chenopodium album, Oenothera berteriana, Zea mays) were separated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Hybridization of the separated DNA with mtDNA-specific probes revealed an identical distribution of mtDNA sequences in all cases: part of the DNA formed a smear of linear molecules migrating into the gel, the rest remained in the well. Hybridization signals in the compression zone of the gels disappeared after RNase or alkaline treatment. It was shown that the linear molecules are not products of unspecific degradation by nucleases. All plastid (pt) DNA from leaves of Nicotiana tabacum remained in the well after PFGE. Separation of linear monomers and oligomers of the chloroplast chromosomes of N. tabacum was achieved by mild DNase treatment of the well-bound DNA. DNase treatment of well-bound mtDNA, however, generated a smear of linear molecules. PtDNA from cultured cells of C. album was found after PFGE to be partly well-bound, and partly separated into linear molecules with sizes of monomeric and oligomeric chromosomes. The ease with which it was possible to detect large linear molecules of plastid DNA indicates that shearing forces alone can not explain the smear of linear molecules obtained after PFGE of mtDNA. The results are discussed in relation to the structural organization of the mt genome of higher plants.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Key words Invasion ; Mitochondrial genome ; Plasmid ; Recombination ; Recombination-dependent replication ; Rolling-circle
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We have studied intermediates of the recombination and replication of chromosomal mitochondrial (mt) DNA prepared from suspension cultured cells of Chenopodium album (L.) by electron microscopy during the whole growth cycle. We identified several types of potential recombination and replication intermediates including rosette-like structures, as well as other branched and sigma-like molecules. The absolute and relative amounts of these structures changed dramatically during the growth cycle, indicating high dynamics in the structural organization of the mt genome. The rosette-like molecules had sizes of 2–5 genome units and were found to contain putative replication forks and `Holliday'-junctions known from recombination intermediates. The high number of rosettes during the first days of culture, and their drastic reduction in the stationary growth stage, were found to be inversely related to changes in the quantity of linear molecules of 40–200 kb. This observation suggests that linear molecules participate in the formation of giant branched rosette-like structures. Most linear molecules were previously found to have at least one single-stranded end, which may allow recombinative invasion of other double-stranded molecules. Thus, recombination events may lead to the formation of more complex molecules and initiate replication similar to phage T4. We propose the coexistence of a recombination-dependent mode of replication with a presumably recombination-independent rolling-circle mode of replication in the mitochondria of C. album.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Key wordsHordeum vulgare L. ; Chloroplast ; Plastid factor ; RNA-binding protein
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Three cDNAs encoding chloroplast RNA-binding proteins (RNBPs) were identified in a screen of barley albostrians mutant expression libraries, and their binding and expression characteristics were determined. Two of these proteins, designated cp31AHv and cp31BHv, are closely related to group II, whereas the third, cp33Hv, is more similar to group III of the nuclear-encoded chloroplast RNBPs of dicot plants. Analysis of RNA from sections of primary leaves by Northern hybridization showed that the expression of these genes correlates with the stage of leaf development. The steady state transcript levels of the two genes encoding cp31BHv and cp33Hv, but not of the gene for cp31AHv, were positively affected by light. Moreover, a plastid factor is required for activation of cp31AHv transcription as revealed by the low level of cp31AHv mRNA in white leaves of the albostrians mutant and of seedlings treated with Norflurazon. Therefore, we propose the existence of a light-independent plastid-derived signal chain that regulates the expression of cp31AHv.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Mitochondrial DNA ; Chenopodium album ; In vitro culture ; Mitochondrial plasmid
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The mitochondrial genome (mt genome) of Chenopodium album was analysed. It was found to have a size of about 270 kb and a GC content of 46%. The genomes of plant cells and suspension cultures were compared. Restriction fragment pattern analyses and hybridization experiments revealed quantitative and qualitative alterations. However, a comparison of the restriction fragment patterns of two independently established in vitro cultures did not reveal differences as far as the mt chromosomal DNA is concerned. Therefore, alterations in mtDNA induced by in vitro culture seem not to be caused by an entirely undirected process in Chenopodium. A plasmid-like DNA molecule was amplified in only one of the cultures investigated and not in the other or in the plant cells. This molecule has a length of 1,083 by and is referred to as Ca1 mp1.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung 1. Die Sorte ‘Mrs. Parker’ von Pelargonium zonale (Abb. 1) ist eine Periklinalchimäre der Konstitution Weiß-über-Grün (LI und LII weiß, LIII grün). Reziproke Kreuzungen mit der grünen Sorte ‘Trautlieb’ zeigen einen biparentalen, extranukleären Erbgang des Unterschiedes grün — weiß. Die F1 besteht aus grünen, grün-weiß gescheckten und weißen Keimlingen (Tabelle 1). 2. In grün-weiß gescheckten F1-Pflanzen konnten echte Mischzellen nachgewiesen werden, die nebeneinander normal grüne Plastiden (von ‘Trautlieb’) und mutierte weiße Plastiden (von ‘Mrs. Parker’) enthalten (Abb. 2). Die weißen Zellen von ‘Mrs. Parker’ repräsentieren somit eine weiße Plastommutante; sie erhält die Bezeichnung „extranukleär: alba-1”; Symbol en: alba-1. 3. Entmischte weiße und grüne Triebe von F1-Bastarden (Abb. 3) dienten als Objekte für biochemische Untersuchungen. Von weißen Plastiden wurden elektronenmikroskopische Aufnahmen angefertigt. 4. Aus normal grünen Zellen von Pelargonium zonale sind vier Banden hochmolekularer rRNS zu gewinnen: 25S und 18S RNS der Cytoplasma-Ribosomen und 23S und 16S RNS der Plastiden-Ribosomen (Abb. 5a). 5. Als Folge einer Mutation der Plastiden-DNS treten in den weißen Plastiden von ‘Mrs. Parker’ Veränderungen im RNS-Muster auf (Abb. 5b): Die 23S und 16S rRNS lassen sich in Polyacrylamid-Gelen nicht nachweisen (die 25S und 18S RNS der Cytoplasma-Ribosomen sind unverändert vorhanden). 6. In den Zellen der weißen Blätter sind zahlreiche Plastiden vorhanden. Sie sind kleiner als normale Chloroplasten und haben eine doppelschichtige Hüllmembran; hingegen ist eine normale Ausbildung innerer Membranstrukturen blockiert. 7. In den mutierten Plastiden von ‘Mrs. Parker’ konnten Ribosomen elektronenmikroskopisch nicht nachgewiesen werden (Abb. 6). 8. Aus diesen Befunden kann geschlossen werden, daß in den mutierten Plastiden keine Proteinsynthese stattfinden kann. Die Vermehrung der Plastiden — und wahrscheinlich auch die Replikation der Plastiden-DNS — wird durch diesen Defekt nicht beeinträchtigt. 9. Die Ergebnisse weisen darauf hin, daß die Proteinsynthese innerhalb der Plastiden für eine vollständige Entwicklung und Differenzierung der Chloroplasten notwendig ist, auch wenn ein wesentlicher Teil der Plastiden-Proteine an den Ribosomen des Cytoplasmas synthetisiert wird.
    Notes: Summary 1. The variety ‘Mrs. Parker’ of Pelargonium zonale (fig. 1) is a periclinal chimera of the constitution white-over-green (LI and L II: white, L III: green). Reciprocal crosses with the green variety ‘Trautlieb’ demonstrate a biparental, extranuclear inheritance of the character green.- white. The F1 consists of green, green-white variegated and white seedlings (table 1). 2. In green-white variegated F1-plants “mixed cells” (fig. 2) have been found containing two genetically different types of plastids: green plastids (from ‘Trautlieb’) and white plastids (from ‘Mrs. Parker’). The white cells of ‘Mrs. Parker’ represent a white plastid mutant (= plastom mutant); its genetic designation is “extranuclear: alba-1”, symbol en: alba-1. 3. Leaf material for biochemical studies was obtained from pure white and entirely green shoots of variegated F1 hybrids (fig. 3). The ultrastructure of the white plastids was studied by electron microscopy. 4. From normal green cells of Pelargonium zonale four bands of high molecular weight ribosomal RNA can be isolated: 25 S and 18 S RNA of the cytoplasmic ribosomes and 23 S and 16 S RNA of plastid ribosomes (fig. 5a). 5. The mutation of the plastid DNA in the plastids of ‘Mrs. Parker’ causes an altered RNA pattern: The 23 S and 16 S RNA of the plastid ribosomes cannot be detected in polyacrylamid gels (whereas 25 S and 18 S RNA are present) (fig. 5b). 6. In cells of white leaves numerous plastids are present. They are smaller than normal chloroplasts and have a double-layered envelope. However, the formation of normal internal membrane structures is blocked. 7. In mutated plastids of ‘Mrs. Parker’ ribosomes cannot be detected in electron micrographs (fig. 6). 8. From these findings we conclude that protein synthesis cannot be performed in mutated plastids. The multiplication of the plastids — and presumably also the replication of plastid DNA — is not impaired by the deficiency in plastid protein synthesis. 9. These results indicate that protein synthesis within the plastids is necessary for full development and differentiation of the chloroplasts, although an essential part of the plastidal proteins are synthesized on cytoplasmic ribosomes.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary Using the broad-host-range promoter probe vector pRS201 for cloning of phage Acm1 promoters, we established a convenient vector system for expression of heterologous genes in different Gram-negative bacteria. The usefulness of this system was demonstrated by expression of the HBV core gene in Acetobacter methanolicus. Plasmids carrying the HBV core gene downstream of different Acm1-phage promoters were transferred to A. methanolicus, a new potential host for recombinant DNA expression. Using enzyme immunoassay and immunoblot techniques, the amount and composition of core antigen produced in A. methanolicus were compared with that derived from Escherichia coli. The expression of immunoreactive core antigen in A. methanolicus exceeds by sevenfold that in E. coli using an expression system with tandemly arranged promoters. Morphological observations by electron microscopy show that the HBV core gene products isolated from both hosts are assembled into regular spherical particles with a diameter of about 28 nm that are comparable to original viral nucleocapsids.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: DNA fingerprinting of filamentous fungi ; Penicillium ; Trichoderma ; Aspergillus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary We have analyzed 11 strains and clones, representing five species (Penicillium janthinellum, P. citrioviridae, P. chrysogenum, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma harzianum) and three genera of filamentous fungi, for the presence of hypervariable loci in their genomes by hybridization with simple repeat oligonucleotides and the DNA of phage M13. The oligonucleotide probes (CT)8, (GTG)5 and (GACA)4, as well as M13 DNA, are informative probes for fingerprinting in all genera and species tested. The probe (GATA)4 produced informative fingerprints only with the genomic DNA of A. niger. There was no similarity between the fingerprints originating from fungi of different genera and also little similarity between the fingerprints of different species belonging to the same genus. Fingerprints of strains of the same species differed only slightly from each other. Fingerprints of clones originating from one strain were identical. The results indicate that DNA fingerprinting is a powerful method to differentiate species and strains of filamentous fungi.
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