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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-09-03
    Description: Topoisomerases are expressed throughout the developing and adult brain and are mutated in some individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, how topoisomerases are mechanistically connected to ASD is unknown. Here we find that topotecan, a topoisomerase 1 (TOP1) inhibitor, dose-dependently reduces the expression of extremely long genes in mouse and human neurons, including nearly all genes that are longer than 200 kilobases. Expression of long genes is also reduced after knockdown of Top1 or Top2b in neurons, highlighting that both enzymes are required for full expression of long genes. By mapping RNA polymerase II density genome-wide in neurons, we found that this length-dependent effect on gene expression was due to impaired transcription elongation. Interestingly, many high-confidence ASD candidate genes are exceptionally long and were reduced in expression after TOP1 inhibition. Our findings suggest that chemicals and genetic mutations that impair topoisomerases could commonly contribute to ASD and other neurodevelopmental disorders.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3767287/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3767287/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉King, Ian F -- Yandava, Chandri N -- Mabb, Angela M -- Hsiao, Jack S -- Huang, Hsien-Sung -- Pearson, Brandon L -- Calabrese, J Mauro -- Starmer, Joshua -- Parker, Joel S -- Magnuson, Terry -- Chamberlain, Stormy J -- Philpot, Benjamin D -- Zylka, Mark J -- P30 NS045892/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P30HD03110/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- P30NS045892/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM101974/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HD068730/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH093372/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01GM101974/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01HD068730/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01MH093372/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- T32 HD040127/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- T32HD040127/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Sep 5;501(7465):58-62. doi: 10.1038/nature12504. Epub 2013 Aug 28.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23995680" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Autistic Disorder/*genetics ; DNA Topoisomerases, Type I/deficiency/*metabolism ; DNA Topoisomerases, Type II/deficiency/metabolism ; DNA-Binding Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors/deficiency/metabolism ; Gene Knockdown Techniques ; Genomic Imprinting/genetics ; Humans ; Mice ; Mutation/genetics ; RNA Polymerase II/metabolism ; Synapses/metabolism ; Topoisomerase Inhibitors/pharmacology ; Topotecan/pharmacology ; *Transcription Elongation, Genetic/drug effects
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2014-08-08
    Description: 〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4517178/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4517178/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zylka, Mark J -- Philpot, Ben D -- King, Ian F -- DP1 ES024088/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- P30 NS045892/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH093372/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Aug 7;512(7512):E2. doi: 10.1038/nature13584.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA [2] Carolina Institute for Developmental Disabilities, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA [3] UNC Neuroscience Center, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. ; Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25100485" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Autistic Disorder/*genetics ; DNA Topoisomerases, Type I/*metabolism ; Humans ; *Transcription Elongation, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-12-23
    Description: Angelman syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by deletion or mutation of the maternal allele of the ubiquitin protein ligase E3A (UBE3A). In neurons, the paternal allele of UBE3A is intact but epigenetically silenced, raising the possibility that Angelman syndrome could be treated by activating this silenced allele to restore functional UBE3A protein. Using an unbiased, high-content screen in primary cortical neurons from mice, we identify twelve topoisomerase I inhibitors and four topoisomerase II inhibitors that unsilence the paternal Ube3a allele. These drugs included topotecan, irinotecan, etoposide and dexrazoxane (ICRF-187). At nanomolar concentrations, topotecan upregulated catalytically active UBE3A in neurons from maternal Ube3a-null mice. Topotecan concomitantly downregulated expression of the Ube3a antisense transcript that overlaps the paternal copy of Ube3a. These results indicate that topotecan unsilences Ube3a in cis by reducing transcription of an imprinted antisense RNA. When administered in vivo, topotecan unsilenced the paternal Ube3a allele in several regions of the nervous system, including neurons in the hippocampus, neocortex, striatum, cerebellum and spinal cord. Paternal expression of Ube3a remained elevated in a subset of spinal cord neurons for at least 12 weeks after cessation of topotecan treatment, indicating that transient topoisomerase inhibition can have enduring effects on gene expression. Although potential off-target effects remain to be investigated, our findings suggest a therapeutic strategy for reactivating the functional but dormant allele of Ube3a in patients with Angelman syndrome.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3257422/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3257422/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Huang, Hsien-Sung -- Allen, John A -- Mabb, Angela M -- King, Ian F -- Miriyala, Jayalakshmi -- Taylor-Blake, Bonnie -- Sciaky, Noah -- Dutton, J Walter Jr -- Lee, Hyeong-Min -- Chen, Xin -- Jin, Jian -- Bridges, Arlene S -- Zylka, Mark J -- Roth, Bryan L -- Philpot, Benjamin D -- 5F32NS067712/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- 5P30NS045892/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- HHSN-271-2008-00025-C/PHS HHS/ -- P30 HD003110/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- P30 HD003110-45/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- P30HD03110/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01EY018323/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01MH093372/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01NS060725/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01NS067688/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- T32 HD040127/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- T32 HD040127-10/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- T32HD040127-07/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Dec 21;481(7380):185-9. doi: 10.1038/nature10726.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cell and Molecular Physiology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22190039" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Alleles ; Angelman Syndrome/drug therapy/genetics ; Animals ; Cells, Cultured ; Cerebral Cortex/cytology/drug effects/metabolism ; Drug Evaluation, Preclinical ; Fathers ; Female ; Gene Silencing/*drug effects ; Genomic Imprinting/drug effects/genetics ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mothers ; Neurons/*drug effects/*metabolism ; Small Molecule Libraries/administration & dosage/chemistry/pharmacology ; Topoisomerase Inhibitors/administration & ; dosage/analysis/pharmacokinetics/*pharmacology ; Topotecan/administration & dosage/pharmacokinetics/pharmacology ; Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/deficiency/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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