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  • 1
  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-07-27
    Description: Medulloblastoma is an aggressively growing tumour, arising in the cerebellum or medulla/brain stem. It is the most common malignant brain tumour in children, and shows tremendous biological and clinical heterogeneity. Despite recent treatment advances, approximately 40% of children experience tumour recurrence, and 30% will die from their disease. Those who survive often have a significantly reduced quality of life. Four tumour subgroups with distinct clinical, biological and genetic profiles are currently identified. WNT tumours, showing activated wingless pathway signalling, carry a favourable prognosis under current treatment regimens. SHH tumours show hedgehog pathway activation, and have an intermediate prognosis. Group 3 and 4 tumours are molecularly less well characterized, and also present the greatest clinical challenges. The full repertoire of genetic events driving this distinction, however, remains unclear. Here we describe an integrative deep-sequencing analysis of 125 tumour-normal pairs, conducted as part of the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) PedBrain Tumor Project. Tetraploidy was identified as a frequent early event in Group 3 and 4 tumours, and a positive correlation between patient age and mutation rate was observed. Several recurrent mutations were identified, both in known medulloblastoma-related genes (CTNNB1, PTCH1, MLL2, SMARCA4) and in genes not previously linked to this tumour (DDX3X, CTDNEP1, KDM6A, TBR1), often in subgroup-specific patterns. RNA sequencing confirmed these alterations, and revealed the expression of what are, to our knowledge, the first medulloblastoma fusion genes identified. Chromatin modifiers were frequently altered across all subgroups. These findings enhance our understanding of the genomic complexity and heterogeneity underlying medulloblastoma, and provide several potential targets for new therapeutics, especially for Group 3 and 4 patients.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3662966/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3662966/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jones, David T W -- Jager, Natalie -- Kool, Marcel -- Zichner, Thomas -- Hutter, Barbara -- Sultan, Marc -- Cho, Yoon-Jae -- Pugh, Trevor J -- Hovestadt, Volker -- Stutz, Adrian M -- Rausch, Tobias -- Warnatz, Hans-Jorg -- Ryzhova, Marina -- Bender, Sebastian -- Sturm, Dominik -- Pleier, Sabrina -- Cin, Huriye -- Pfaff, Elke -- Sieber, Laura -- Wittmann, Andrea -- Remke, Marc -- Witt, Hendrik -- Hutter, Sonja -- Tzaridis, Theophilos -- Weischenfeldt, Joachim -- Raeder, Benjamin -- Avci, Meryem -- Amstislavskiy, Vyacheslav -- Zapatka, Marc -- Weber, Ursula D -- Wang, Qi -- Lasitschka, Barbel -- Bartholomae, Cynthia C -- Schmidt, Manfred -- von Kalle, Christof -- Ast, Volker -- Lawerenz, Chris -- Eils, Jurgen -- Kabbe, Rolf -- Benes, Vladimir -- van Sluis, Peter -- Koster, Jan -- Volckmann, Richard -- Shih, David -- Betts, Matthew J -- Russell, Robert B -- Coco, Simona -- Tonini, Gian Paolo -- Schuller, Ulrich -- Hans, Volkmar -- Graf, Norbert -- Kim, Yoo-Jin -- Monoranu, Camelia -- Roggendorf, Wolfgang -- Unterberg, Andreas -- Herold-Mende, Christel -- Milde, Till -- Kulozik, Andreas E -- von Deimling, Andreas -- Witt, Olaf -- Maass, Eberhard -- Rossler, Jochen -- Ebinger, Martin -- Schuhmann, Martin U -- Fruhwald, Michael C -- Hasselblatt, Martin -- Jabado, Nada -- Rutkowski, Stefan -- von Bueren, Andre O -- Williamson, Dan -- Clifford, Steven C -- McCabe, Martin G -- Collins, V Peter -- Wolf, Stephan -- Wiemann, Stefan -- Lehrach, Hans -- Brors, Benedikt -- Scheurlen, Wolfram -- Felsberg, Jorg -- Reifenberger, Guido -- Northcott, Paul A -- Taylor, Michael D -- Meyerson, Matthew -- Pomeroy, Scott L -- Yaspo, Marie-Laure -- Korbel, Jan O -- Korshunov, Andrey -- Eils, Roland -- Pfister, Stefan M -- Lichter, Peter -- P30 HD018655/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA109467/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Aug 2;488(7409):100-5. doi: 10.1038/nature11284.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Pediatric Neurooncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg 69120, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22832583" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging/genetics ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic ; Cerebellar Neoplasms/classification/diagnosis/*genetics/pathology ; Child ; Chromatin/metabolism ; Chromosomes, Human/genetics ; DEAD-box RNA Helicases/genetics ; DNA Helicases/genetics ; DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; Genomics ; Hedgehog Proteins/metabolism ; High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing ; Histone Demethylases/genetics ; Humans ; Medulloblastoma/classification/diagnosis/*genetics/pathology ; Methylation ; Mutation/genetics ; Mutation Rate ; Neoplasm Proteins/genetics ; Nuclear Proteins/genetics ; Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/genetics ; Phosphoprotein Phosphatases/genetics ; Polyploidy ; Receptors, Cell Surface/genetics ; Sequence Analysis, RNA ; Signal Transduction ; T-Box Domain Proteins/genetics ; Transcription Factors/genetics ; Wnt Proteins/metabolism ; beta Catenin/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-16
    Description: All cancers are caused by somatic mutations; however, understanding of the biological processes generating these mutations is limited. The catalogue of somatic mutations from a cancer genome bears the signatures of the mutational processes that have been operative. Here we analysed 4,938,362 mutations from 7,042 cancers and extracted more than 20 distinct mutational signatures. Some are present in many cancer types, notably a signature attributed to the APOBEC family of cytidine deaminases, whereas others are confined to a single cancer class. Certain signatures are associated with age of the patient at cancer diagnosis, known mutagenic exposures or defects in DNA maintenance, but many are of cryptic origin. In addition to these genome-wide mutational signatures, hypermutation localized to small genomic regions, 'kataegis', is found in many cancer types. The results reveal the diversity of mutational processes underlying the development of cancer, with potential implications for understanding of cancer aetiology, prevention and therapy.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3776390/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3776390/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Alexandrov, Ludmil B -- Nik-Zainal, Serena -- Wedge, David C -- Aparicio, Samuel A J R -- Behjati, Sam -- Biankin, Andrew V -- Bignell, Graham R -- Bolli, Niccolo -- Borg, Ake -- Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise -- Boyault, Sandrine -- Burkhardt, Birgit -- Butler, Adam P -- Caldas, Carlos -- Davies, Helen R -- Desmedt, Christine -- Eils, Roland -- Eyfjord, Jorunn Erla -- Foekens, John A -- Greaves, Mel -- Hosoda, Fumie -- Hutter, Barbara -- Ilicic, Tomislav -- Imbeaud, Sandrine -- Imielinski, Marcin -- Jager, Natalie -- Jones, David T W -- Jones, David -- Knappskog, Stian -- Kool, Marcel -- Lakhani, Sunil R -- Lopez-Otin, Carlos -- Martin, Sancha -- Munshi, Nikhil C -- Nakamura, Hiromi -- Northcott, Paul A -- Pajic, Marina -- Papaemmanuil, Elli -- Paradiso, Angelo -- Pearson, John V -- Puente, Xose S -- Raine, Keiran -- Ramakrishna, Manasa -- Richardson, Andrea L -- Richter, Julia -- Rosenstiel, Philip -- Schlesner, Matthias -- Schumacher, Ton N -- Span, Paul N -- Teague, Jon W -- Totoki, Yasushi -- Tutt, Andrew N J -- Valdes-Mas, Rafael -- van Buuren, Marit M -- van 't Veer, Laura -- Vincent-Salomon, Anne -- Waddell, Nicola -- Yates, Lucy R -- Australian Pancreatic Cancer Genome Initiative -- ICGC Breast Cancer Consortium -- ICGC MMML-Seq Consortium -- ICGC PedBrain -- Zucman-Rossi, Jessica -- Futreal, P Andrew -- McDermott, Ultan -- Lichter, Peter -- Meyerson, Matthew -- Grimmond, Sean M -- Siebert, Reiner -- Campo, Elias -- Shibata, Tatsuhiro -- Pfister, Stefan M -- Campbell, Peter J -- Stratton, Michael R -- 088340/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 093867/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 098051/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- T32 CA009216/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Aug 22;500(7463):415-21. doi: 10.1038/nature12477. Epub 2013 Aug 14.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Cancer Genome Project, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire CB10 1SA, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23945592" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging/genetics ; Algorithms ; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/*genetics/pathology ; Cytidine Deaminase/genetics ; DNA/genetics/metabolism ; DNA Mutational Analysis ; Humans ; Models, Genetic ; Mutagenesis/*genetics ; Mutagenesis, Insertional/genetics ; Mutagens/pharmacology ; Mutation/*genetics ; Neoplasms/enzymology/*genetics/pathology ; Organ Specificity ; Reproducibility of Results ; Sequence Deletion/genetics ; Transcription, Genetic/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2012-06-05
    Description: Extracellular plaques of amyloid-beta and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles made from tau are the histopathological signatures of Alzheimer's disease. Plaques comprise amyloid-beta fibrils that assemble from monomeric and oligomeric intermediates, and are prognostic indicators of Alzheimer's disease. Despite the importance of plaques to Alzheimer's disease, oligomers are considered to be the principal toxic forms of amyloid-beta. Interestingly, many adverse responses to amyloid-beta, such as cytotoxicity, microtubule loss, impaired memory and learning, and neuritic degeneration, are greatly amplified by tau expression. Amino-terminally truncated, pyroglutamylated (pE) forms of amyloid-beta are strongly associated with Alzheimer's disease, are more toxic than amyloid-beta, residues 1-42 (Abeta(1-42)) and Abeta(1-40), and have been proposed as initiators of Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. Here we report a mechanism by which pE-Abeta may trigger Alzheimer's disease. Abeta(3(pE)-42) co-oligomerizes with excess Abeta(1-42) to form metastable low-n oligomers (LNOs) that are structurally distinct and far more cytotoxic to cultured neurons than comparable LNOs made from Abeta(1-42) alone. Tau is required for cytotoxicity, and LNOs comprising 5% Abeta(3(pE)-42) plus 95% Abeta(1-42) (5% pE-Abeta) seed new cytotoxic LNOs through multiple serial dilutions into Abeta(1-42) monomers in the absence of additional Abeta(3(pE)-42). LNOs isolated from human Alzheimer's disease brain contained Abeta(3(pE)-42), and enhanced Abeta(3(pE)-42) formation in mice triggered neuron loss and gliosis at 3 months, but not in a tau-null background. We conclude that Abeta(3(pE)-42) confers tau-dependent neuronal death and causes template-induced misfolding of Abeta(1-42) into structurally distinct LNOs that propagate by a prion-like mechanism. Our results raise the possibility that Abeta(3(pE)-42) acts similarly at a primary step in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3367389/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3367389/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nussbaum, Justin M -- Schilling, Stephan -- Cynis, Holger -- Silva, Antonia -- Swanson, Eric -- Wangsanut, Tanaporn -- Tayler, Kaycie -- Wiltgen, Brian -- Hatami, Asa -- Ronicke, Raik -- Reymann, Klaus -- Hutter-Paier, Birgit -- Alexandru, Anca -- Jagla, Wolfgang -- Graubner, Sigrid -- Glabe, Charles G -- Demuth, Hans-Ulrich -- Bloom, George S -- GM008136/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P50 AG016573/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P50AG16573/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG033069/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01AG033069/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM008136/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM008136-25/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 May 2;485(7400):651-5. doi: 10.1038/nature11060.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22660329" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alzheimer Disease/metabolism ; Amyloid/chemistry/drug effects/metabolism/*toxicity ; Amyloid beta-Peptides/*chemistry/genetics/metabolism/toxicity ; Animals ; Disease Models, Animal ; Glutamic Acid/chemistry/*metabolism ; Humans ; Mice ; Mice, Transgenic ; Mutant Proteins/*chemistry/genetics/metabolism/*toxicity ; Peptide Fragments/*chemistry/genetics/metabolism/toxicity ; Prions/chemistry/*metabolism/toxicity ; tau Proteins/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Keywords: CANCER ; PATHWAY ; GENES ; ACTIVATION ; MUTATIONS ; SUBGROUPS ; LANDSCAPE ; TETRAPLOID TUMOR-CELLS ; TBR1
    Abstract: Medulloblastoma is an aggressively growing tumour, arising in the cerebellum or medulla/brain stem. It is the most common malignant brain tumour in children, and shows tremendous biological and clinical heterogeneity. Despite recent treatment advances, approximately 40% of children experience tumour recurrence, and 30% will die from their disease. Those who survive often have a significantly reduced quality of life. Four tumour subgroups with distinct clinical, biological and genetic profiles are currently identified. WNT tumours, showing activated wingless pathway signalling, carry a favourable prognosis under current treatment regimens. SHH tumours show hedgehog pathway activation, and have an intermediate prognosis. Group 3 and 4 tumours are molecularly less well characterized, and also present the greatest clinical challenges. The full repertoire of genetic events driving this distinction, however, remains unclear. Here we describe an integrative deep-sequencing analysis of 125 tumour-normal pairs, conducted as part of the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) PedBrain Tumor Project. Tetraploidy was identified as a frequent early event in Group 3 and 4 tumours, and a positive correlation between patient age and mutation rate was observed. Several recurrent mutations were identified, both in known medulloblastoma-related genes (CTNNB1, PTCH1, MLL2, SMARCA4) and in genes not previously linked to this tumour (DDX3X, CTDNEP1, KDM6A, TBR1), often in subgroup-specific patterns. RNA sequencing confirmed these alterations, and revealed the expression of what are, to our knowledge, the first medulloblastoma fusion genes identified. Chromatin modifiers were frequently altered across all subgroups. These findings enhance our understanding of the genomic complexity and heterogeneity underlying medulloblastoma, and provide several potential targets for new therapeutics, especially for Group 3 and 4 patients.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22832583
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  • 6
    Keywords: PROSTATE-CANCER ; ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC-LEUKEMIA ; SQUAMOUS-CELL CARCINOMA ; LUNG ADENOCARCINOMA ; ACUTE MYELOID-LEUKEMIA ; SOMATIC MUTATIONS ; GENETIC LANDSCAPE ; 21 BREAST CANCERS ; RECURRENT MUTATIONS ; FREQUENT MUTATION
    Abstract: All cancers are caused by somatic mutations; however, understanding of the biological processes generating these mutations is limited. The catalogue of somatic mutations from a cancer genome bears the signatures of the mutational processes that have been operative. Here we analysed 4,938,362 mutations from 7,042 cancers and extracted more than 20 distinct mutational signatures. Some are present in many cancer types, notably a signature attributed to the APOBEC family of cytidine deaminases, whereas others are confined to a single cancer class. Certain signatures are associated with age of the patient at cancer diagnosis, known mutagenic exposures or defects in DNA maintenance, but many are of cryptic origin. In addition to these genome-wide mutational signatures, hypermutation localized to small genomic regions, 'kataegis', is found in many cancer types. The results reveal the diversity of mutational processes underlying the development of cancer, with potential implications for understanding of cancer aetiology, prevention and therapy.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23945592
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  • 7
    Keywords: proliferation ; TRIAL ; METASTATIC MELANOMA ; B-RAF ; NON-HODGKIN-LYMPHOMA ; IMPROVED SURVIVAL ; OPEN-LABEL ; MEK INHIBITION ; DABRAFENIB ; RAF INHIBITORS
    Abstract: Patients with BRAFV600E/K-driven melanoma respond to the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib due to subsequent deactivation of the proliferative RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway. In BRAF WT cells and those with mutations that activate or result in high levels of the BRAF activator RAS, BRAF inhibition can lead to ERK activation, resulting in tumorigenic transformation. We describe a patient with malignant melanoma who developed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in the absence of RAS mutations during vemurafenib treatment. BRAF inhibition promoted patient CLL proliferation in culture and in murine xenografts and activated MEK/ERK in primary CLL cells from additional patients. BRAF inhibitor-driven ERK activity and CLL proliferation required B cell antigen receptor (BCR) activation, as inhibition of the BCR-proximal spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) reversed ERK hyperactivation and proliferation of CLL cells from multiple patients, while inhibition of the BCR-distal Bruton tyrosine kinase had no effect. Additionally, the RAS-GTP/RAS ratio in primary CLL cells exposed to vemurafenib was reduced upon SYK inhibition. BRAF inhibition increased mortality and CLL expansion in mice harboring CLL xenografts; however, SYK or MEK inhibition prevented CLL proliferation and increased animal survival. Together, these results suggest that BRAF inhibitors promote B cell malignancies in the absence of obvious mutations in RAS or other receptor tyrosine kinases and provide a rationale for combined BRAF/MEK or BRAF/SYK inhibition.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25329694
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  • 8
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; BRAF INHIBITION
    Abstract: Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is marked by near 100% mutational frequency of BRAFV600E mutations. Recurrent cooperating genetic events that may contribute to HCL pathogenesis or affect the clinical course of HCL are currently not described. Therefore, we performed whole exome sequencing to explore the mutational landscape of purine analog refractory HCL. In addition to the disease-defining BRAFV600E mutations, we identified mutations in EZH2, ARID1A, and recurrent inactivating mutations of the cell cycle inhibitor CDKN1B (p27). Targeted deep sequencing of CDKN1B in a larger cohort of HCL patients identify deleterious CDKN1B mutations in 16% of patients with HCL (n = 13 of 81). In 11 of 13 patients the CDKN1B mutation was clonal, implying an early role of CDKN1B mutations in the pathogenesis of HCL. CDKN1B mutations were not found to impact clinical characteristics or outcome in this cohort. These data identify HCL as having the highest frequency of CDKN1B mutations among cancers and identify CDNK1B as the second most common mutated gene in HCL. Moreover, given the known function of CDNK1B, these data suggest a novel role for alterations in regulation of cell cycle and senescence in HCL with CDKN1B mutations.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26065650
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  • 9
    Abstract: Activating BRAF mutations, in particular V600E/K, drive many cancers and are considered mutually exclusive with mutant RAS, whereas inactivating BRAF mutations in the D594F595G596 motif cooperate with RAS via paradoxical MEK/ERK activation. Due to the increasing use of comprehensive tumor genomic profiling, many non-V600 BRAF mutations are being detected whose functional consequences and therapeutic actionability are often unknown. We investigated an atypical BRAF mutation, F595L, which was identified along with mutant HRAS in histiocytic sarcoma and also occurs in epithelial cancers, melanoma and neuroblastoma, and determined its interaction with mutant RAS. Unlike other DFG motif mutants, BRAFF595L is a gain-of-function variant with intermediate activity that does not act paradoxically, but nevertheless cooperates with mutant RAS to promote oncogenic signaling, which is efficiently blocked by pan-RAF and MEK inhibitors. Mutation data from patients and cell lines show that BRAFF595L, as well as other intermediate-activity BRAF mutations, frequently coincide with mutant RAS in various cancers. These data define a distinct class of activating BRAF mutations, extend the spectrum of patients with systemic histiocytoses and other malignancies who are candidates for therapeutic blockade of the RAF-MEK-ERK pathway and underscore the value of comprehensive genomic testing for uncovering the vulnerabilities of individual tumors.Leukemia accepted article preview online, 19 November 2015. doi:10.1038/leu.2015.319.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26582644
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  • 10
    Abstract: As whole-genome sequencing for cancer genome analysis becomes a clinical tool, a full understanding of the variables affecting sequencing analysis output is required. Here using tumour-normal sample pairs from two different types of cancer, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and medulloblastoma, we conduct a benchmarking exercise within the context of the International Cancer Genome Consortium. We compare sequencing methods, analysis pipelines and validation methods. We show that using PCR-free methods and increasing sequencing depth to approximately 100 x shows benefits, as long as the tumour:control coverage ratio remains balanced. We observe widely varying mutation call rates and low concordance among analysis pipelines, reflecting the artefact-prone nature of the raw data and lack of standards for dealing with the artefacts. However, we show that, using the benchmark mutation set we have created, many issues are in fact easy to remedy and have an immediate positive impact on mutation detection accuracy.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26647970
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