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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-02
    Description: Saturn's moon Enceladus emits a plume of water vapour and micrometre-sized ice particles from a series of warm fissures located near its south pole. This geological activity could be powered or controlled by variations in the tidal stresses experienced by Enceladus as it moves around its slightly eccentric orbit. The specific mechanisms by which these varying stresses are converted into heat, however, are still being debated. Furthermore, it has proved difficult to find a clear correlation between the predicted tidal forces and measured temporal variations in the plume's gas content or the particle flux from individual sources. Here we report that the plume's horizontally integrated brightness is several times greater when Enceladus is near the point in its eccentric orbit where it is furthest from Saturn (apocentre) than it is when near the point of closest approach to the planet (pericentre). More material therefore seems to be escaping from beneath Enceladus' surface at times when geophysical models predict its fissures should be under tension and therefore may be wider open.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hedman, M M -- Gosmeyer, C M -- Nicholson, P D -- Sotin, C -- Brown, R H -- Clark, R N -- Baines, K H -- Buratti, B J -- Showalter, M R -- England -- Nature. 2013 Aug 8;500(7461):182-4. doi: 10.1038/nature12371. Epub 2013 Jul 31.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA. mmhedman@astro.cornell.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23903658" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-10-17
    Description: The Pluto system was recently explored by NASA's New Horizons spacecraft, making closest approach on 14 July 2015. Pluto's surface displays diverse landforms, terrain ages, albedos, colors, and composition gradients. Evidence is found for a water-ice crust, geologically young surface units, surface ice convection, wind streaks, volatile transport, and glacial flow. Pluto's atmosphere is highly extended, with trace hydrocarbons, a global haze layer, and a surface pressure near 10 microbars. Pluto's diverse surface geology and long-term activity raise fundamental questions about how small planets remain active many billions of years after formation. Pluto's large moon Charon displays tectonics and evidence for a heterogeneous crustal composition; its north pole displays puzzling dark terrain. Small satellites Hydra and Nix have higher albedos than expected.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Stern, S A -- Bagenal, F -- Ennico, K -- Gladstone, G R -- Grundy, W M -- McKinnon, W B -- Moore, J M -- Olkin, C B -- Spencer, J R -- Weaver, H A -- Young, L A -- Andert, T -- Andrews, J -- Banks, M -- Bauer, B -- Bauman, J -- Barnouin, O S -- Bedini, P -- Beisser, K -- Beyer, R A -- Bhaskaran, S -- Binzel, R P -- Birath, E -- Bird, M -- Bogan, D J -- Bowman, A -- Bray, V J -- Brozovic, M -- Bryan, C -- Buckley, M R -- Buie, M W -- Buratti, B J -- Bushman, S S -- Calloway, A -- Carcich, B -- Cheng, A F -- Conard, S -- Conrad, C A -- Cook, J C -- Cruikshank, D P -- Custodio, O S -- Dalle Ore, C M -- Deboy, C -- Dischner, Z J B -- Dumont, P -- Earle, A M -- Elliott, H A -- Ercol, J -- Ernst, C M -- Finley, T -- Flanigan, S H -- Fountain, G -- Freeze, M J -- Greathouse, T -- Green, J L -- Guo, Y -- Hahn, M -- Hamilton, D P -- Hamilton, S A -- Hanley, J -- Harch, A -- Hart, H M -- Hersman, C B -- Hill, A -- Hill, M E -- Hinson, D P -- Holdridge, M E -- Horanyi, M -- Howard, A D -- Howett, C J A -- Jackman, C -- Jacobson, R A -- Jennings, D E -- Kammer, J A -- Kang, H K -- Kaufmann, D E -- Kollmann, P -- Krimigis, S M -- Kusnierkiewicz, D -- Lauer, T R -- Lee, J E -- Lindstrom, K L -- Linscott, I R -- Lisse, C M -- Lunsford, A W -- Mallder, V A -- Martin, N -- McComas, D J -- McNutt, R L Jr -- Mehoke, D -- Mehoke, T -- Melin, E D -- Mutchler, M -- Nelson, D -- Nimmo, F -- Nunez, J I -- Ocampo, A -- Owen, W M -- Paetzold, M -- Page, B -- Parker, A H -- Parker, J W -- Pelletier, F -- Peterson, J -- Pinkine, N -- Piquette, M -- Porter, S B -- Protopapa, S -- Redfern, J -- Reitsema, H J -- Reuter, D C -- Roberts, J H -- Robbins, S J -- Rogers, G -- Rose, D -- Runyon, K -- Retherford, K D -- Ryschkewitsch, M G -- Schenk, P -- Schindhelm, E -- Sepan, B -- Showalter, M R -- Singer, K N -- Soluri, M -- Stanbridge, D -- Steffl, A J -- Strobel, D F -- Stryk, T -- Summers, M E -- Szalay, J R -- Tapley, M -- Taylor, A -- Taylor, H -- Throop, H B -- Tsang, C C C -- Tyler, G L -- Umurhan, O M -- Verbiscer, A J -- Versteeg, M H -- Vincent, M -- Webbert, R -- Weidner, S -- Weigle, G E 2nd -- White, O L -- Whittenburg, K -- Williams, B G -- Williams, K -- Williams, S -- Woods, W W -- Zangari, A M -- Zirnstein, E -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Oct 16;350(6258):aad1815. doi: 10.1126/science.aad1815.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO 80302, USA. astern@boulder.swri.edu. ; Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303, USA. ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center, Space Science Division, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA. ; Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 28510, USA. ; Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001, USA. ; Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA. ; Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO 80302, USA. ; Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723, USA. ; Universitat der Bundeswehr Munchen, Neubiberg 85577, Germany. ; Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA. ; KinetX Aerospace, Tempe, AZ 85284, USA. ; NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, La Canada Flintridge, CA 91011, USA. ; Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. ; University of Bonn, Bonn D-53113, Germany. ; NASA Headquarters (retired), Washington, DC 20546, USA. ; University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. ; Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. ; NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC 20546, USA. ; Rheinisches Institut fur Umweltforschung an der Universitat zu Koln, Cologne 50931, Germany. ; Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA. ; Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute, Mountain View, CA 94043, USA. ; Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA. ; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA. ; National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 26732, USA. ; NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812, USA. ; Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. ; Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA. ; University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA. ; Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, TX 77058, USA. ; Michael Soluri Photography, New York, NY 10014, USA. ; Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA. ; Roane State Community College, Jamestown, TN 38556, USA. ; George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030, USA. ; Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26472913" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-03-19
    Description: The New Horizons mission has provided resolved measurements of Pluto's moons Styx, Nix, Kerberos, and Hydra. All four are small, with equivalent spherical diameters of ~40 kilometers for Nix and Hydra and ~10 kilometers for Styx and Kerberos. They are also highly elongated, with maximum to minimum axis ratios of ~2. All four moons have high albedos (~50 to 90%) suggestive of a water-ice surface composition. Crater densities on Nix and Hydra imply surface ages of at least 4 billion years. The small moons rotate much faster than synchronous, with rotational poles clustered nearly orthogonal to the common pole directions of Pluto and Charon. These results reinforce the hypothesis that the small moons formed in the aftermath of a collision that produced the Pluto-Charon binary.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Weaver, H A -- Buie, M W -- Buratti, B J -- Grundy, W M -- Lauer, T R -- Olkin, C B -- Parker, A H -- Porter, S B -- Showalter, M R -- Spencer, J R -- Stern, S A -- Verbiscer, A J -- McKinnon, W B -- Moore, J M -- Robbins, S J -- Schenk, P -- Singer, K N -- Barnouin, O S -- Cheng, A F -- Ernst, C M -- Lisse, C M -- Jennings, D E -- Lunsford, A W -- Reuter, D C -- Hamilton, D P -- Kaufmann, D E -- Ennico, K -- Young, L A -- Beyer, R A -- Binzel, R P -- Bray, V J -- Chaikin, A L -- Cook, J C -- Cruikshank, D P -- Dalle Ore, C M -- Earle, A M -- Gladstone, G R -- Howett, C J A -- Linscott, I R -- Nimmo, F -- Parker, J Wm -- Philippe, S -- Protopapa, S -- Reitsema, H J -- Schmitt, B -- Stryk, T -- Summers, M E -- Tsang, C C C -- Throop, H H B -- White, O L -- Zangari, A M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 18;351(6279):aae0030. doi: 10.1126/science.aae0030.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723, USA. hal.weaver@jhuapl.edu. ; Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO 80302, USA. ; NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA. ; Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001, USA. ; National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 26732, USA. ; SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA 94043, USA. ; Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA. ; Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA. ; Space Science Division, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA. ; Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, TX 77058, USA. ; Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723, USA. ; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA. ; Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA. ; SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA 94043, USA. Space Science Division, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA. ; Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. ; University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. ; Independent science writer, Arlington, VT, USA. ; Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78238, USA. ; Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. ; University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA. ; Universite Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France. ; Roane State Community College, Oak Ridge, TN 37830, USA. ; George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030, USA. ; Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26989256" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2012-05-15
    Description: Multispectral images (0.44 to 0.98 mum) of asteroid (4) Vesta obtained by the Dawn Framing Cameras reveal global color variations that uncover and help understand the north-south hemispherical dichotomy. The signature of deep lithologies excavated during the formation of the Rheasilvia basin on the south pole has been preserved on the surface. Color variations (band depth, spectral slope, and eucrite-diogenite abundance) clearly correlate with distinct compositional units. Vesta displays the greatest variation of geometric albedo (0.10 to 0.67) of any asteroid yet observed. Four distinct color units are recognized that chronicle processes--including impact excavation, mass wasting, and space weathering--that shaped the asteroid's surface. Vesta's color and photometric diversity are indicative of its status as a preserved, differentiated protoplanet.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Reddy, Vishnu -- Nathues, Andreas -- Le Corre, Lucille -- Sierks, Holger -- Li, Jian-Yang -- Gaskell, Robert -- McCoy, Timothy -- Beck, Andrew W -- Schroder, Stefan E -- Pieters, Carle M -- Becker, Kris J -- Buratti, Bonnie J -- Denevi, Brett -- Blewett, David T -- Christensen, Ulrich -- Gaffey, Michael J -- Gutierrez-Marques, Pablo -- Hicks, Michael -- Keller, Horst Uwe -- Maue, Thorsten -- Mottola, Stefano -- McFadden, Lucy A -- McSween, Harry Y -- Mittlefehldt, David -- O'Brien, David P -- Raymond, Carol -- Russell, Christopher -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 May 11;336(6082):700-4. doi: 10.1126/science.1219088.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max-Planck-Strasse 2, 37191 Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany. reddy@mps.mpg.de〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22582258" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2012-05-15
    Description: Vesta's surface is characterized by abundant impact craters, some with preserved ejecta blankets, large troughs extending around the equatorial region, enigmatic dark material, and widespread mass wasting, but as yet an absence of volcanic features. Abundant steep slopes indicate that impact-generated surface regolith is underlain by bedrock. Dawn observations confirm the large impact basin (Rheasilvia) at Vesta's south pole and reveal evidence for an earlier, underlying large basin (Veneneia). Vesta's geology displays morphological features characteristic of the Moon and terrestrial planets as well as those of other asteroids, underscoring Vesta's unique role as a transitional solar system body.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jaumann, R -- Williams, D A -- Buczkowski, D L -- Yingst, R A -- Preusker, F -- Hiesinger, H -- Schmedemann, N -- Kneissl, T -- Vincent, J B -- Blewett, D T -- Buratti, B J -- Carsenty, U -- Denevi, B W -- De Sanctis, M C -- Garry, W B -- Keller, H U -- Kersten, E -- Krohn, K -- Li, J-Y -- Marchi, S -- Matz, K D -- McCord, T B -- McSween, H Y -- Mest, S C -- Mittlefehldt, D W -- Mottola, S -- Nathues, A -- Neukum, G -- O'Brien, D P -- Pieters, C M -- Prettyman, T H -- Raymond, C A -- Roatsch, T -- Russell, C T -- Schenk, P -- Schmidt, B E -- Scholten, F -- Stephan, K -- Sykes, M V -- Tricarico, P -- Wagner, R -- Zuber, M T -- Sierks, H -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 May 11;336(6082):687-90. doi: 10.1126/science.1219122.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉German Aerospace Center, Institute of Planetary Research, Berlin, Germany. ralf.jaumann@dlr.de〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22582254" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-03-19
    Description: NASA's New Horizons spacecraft has revealed the complex geology of Pluto and Charon. Pluto's encounter hemisphere shows ongoing surface geological activity centered on a vast basin containing a thick layer of volatile ices that appears to be involved in convection and advection, with a crater retention age no greater than ~10 million years. Surrounding terrains show active glacial flow, apparent transport and rotation of large buoyant water-ice crustal blocks, and pitting, the latter likely caused by sublimation erosion and/or collapse. More enigmatic features include tall mounds with central depressions that are conceivably cryovolcanic and ridges with complex bladed textures. Pluto also has ancient cratered terrains up to ~4 billion years old that are extensionally faulted and extensively mantled and perhaps eroded by glacial or other processes. Charon does not appear to be currently active, but experienced major extensional tectonism and resurfacing (probably cryovolcanic) nearly 4 billion years ago. Impact crater populations on Pluto and Charon are not consistent with the steepest impactor size-frequency distributions proposed for the Kuiper belt.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Moore, Jeffrey M -- McKinnon, William B -- Spencer, John R -- Howard, Alan D -- Schenk, Paul M -- Beyer, Ross A -- Nimmo, Francis -- Singer, Kelsi N -- Umurhan, Orkan M -- White, Oliver L -- Stern, S Alan -- Ennico, Kimberly -- Olkin, Cathy B -- Weaver, Harold A -- Young, Leslie A -- Binzel, Richard P -- Buie, Marc W -- Buratti, Bonnie J -- Cheng, Andrew F -- Cruikshank, Dale P -- Grundy, Will M -- Linscott, Ivan R -- Reitsema, Harold J -- Reuter, Dennis C -- Showalter, Mark R -- Bray, Veronica J -- Chavez, Carrie L -- Howett, Carly J A -- Lauer, Tod R -- Lisse, Carey M -- Parker, Alex Harrison -- Porter, S B -- Robbins, Stuart J -- Runyon, Kirby -- Stryk, Ted -- Throop, Henry B -- Tsang, Constantine C C -- Verbiscer, Anne J -- Zangari, Amanda M -- Chaikin, Andrew L -- Wilhelms, Don E -- New Horizons Science Team -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 18;351(6279):1284-93. doi: 10.1126/science.aad7055.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center, Space Science Division, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA. jeff.moore@nasa.gov. ; Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA. ; Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO 80302, USA. ; Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA. ; Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, TX 77058, USA. ; The SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA 94043, USA. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center, Space Science Division, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA. ; University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA. ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center, Space Science Division, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA. ; Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723, USA. ; Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. ; NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91019, USA. ; Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001, USA. ; Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. ; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA. ; The SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA 94043, USA. ; University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. ; National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA. ; Roane State Community College, Oak Ridge, TN 37830, USA. ; Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA. ; Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA. ; Independent Science Writer, Arlington, VT 05250, USA. ; U.S. Geological Survey, Retired, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26989245" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-03-19
    Description: The New Horizons spacecraft mapped colors and infrared spectra across the encounter hemispheres of Pluto and Charon. The volatile methane, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen ices that dominate Pluto's surface have complicated spatial distributions resulting from sublimation, condensation, and glacial flow acting over seasonal and geological time scales. Pluto's water ice "bedrock" was also mapped, with isolated outcrops occurring in a variety of settings. Pluto's surface exhibits complex regional color diversity associated with its distinct provinces. Charon's color pattern is simpler, dominated by neutral low latitudes and a reddish northern polar region. Charon's near-infrared spectra reveal highly localized areas with strong ammonia absorption tied to small craters with relatively fresh-appearing impact ejecta.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Grundy, W M -- Binzel, R P -- Buratti, B J -- Cook, J C -- Cruikshank, D P -- Dalle Ore, C M -- Earle, A M -- Ennico, K -- Howett, C J A -- Lunsford, A W -- Olkin, C B -- Parker, A H -- Philippe, S -- Protopapa, S -- Quirico, E -- Reuter, D C -- Schmitt, B -- Singer, K N -- Verbiscer, A J -- Beyer, R A -- Buie, M W -- Cheng, A F -- Jennings, D E -- Linscott, I R -- Parker, J Wm -- Schenk, P M -- Spencer, J R -- Stansberry, J A -- Stern, S A -- Throop, H B -- Tsang, C C C -- Weaver, H A -- Weigle, G E 2nd -- Young, L A -- New Horizons Science Team -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 18;351(6279):aad9189. doi: 10.1126/science.aad9189.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001, USA. w.grundy@lowell.edu. ; Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. ; NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, La Canada Flintridge, CA 91011, USA. ; Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO 80302, USA. ; NASA Ames Research Center, Space Science Division, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA. ; NASA Ames Research Center, Space Science Division, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA. Carl Sagan Center, SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA 94043, USA. ; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA. ; Universite Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France. ; Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA. ; Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA. ; Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723, USA. ; Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. ; Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, TX 77058, USA. ; Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD, USA. ; Planetary Science Institute, Mumbai, India. ; Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 28510, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26989260" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Hyperion, Saturn’s eighth largest icy satellite, is a body of irregular shape in a state of chaotic rotation. The surface is segregated into two distinct units. A spatially dominant high-albedo unit having the strong signature of H2O ice contrasts with a unit that is about a ...
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Titan is the only satellite in our Solar System with a dense atmosphere. The surface pressure is 1.5 bar (ref. 1) and, similar to the Earth, N2 is the main component of the atmosphere. Methane is the second most important component, but it is photodissociated on a ...
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-0794
    Keywords: Coma ; comets ; Deep Space 1 ; nucleus ; spacecraft exploration
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract NASA's Deep Space 1 (DS1) spacecraft successfully encountered comet 19P/Borrelly near perihelion and the Miniature Integrated Camera and Spectrometer (MICAS) imaging system onboard DS1 returned the first high-resolution images of a Jupiter-family comet nucleus and surrounding environment. The images span solar phase angles from 88° to 52°, providing stereoscopic coverage of the dust coma and nucleus. Numerous surface features are revealed on the 8-km long nucleus in the highest resolution images(47–58 m pixel). A smooth, broad basin containing brighter regions and mesa-likestructures is present in the central part of the nucleus that seems to be the source ofjet-like dust features seen in the coma. High ridges seen along the jagged terminator lead to rugged terrain on both ends of the nucleus containing dark patches and smaller series of parallel grooves. No evidence of impact craters with diameters larger thanabout 200-m are present, indicating a young and active surface. The nucleus is very dark with albedo variations from 0.007 to 0.035. Short-wavelength, infrared spectra from 1.3 to 2.6 μm revealed a hot, dry surface consistent with less than about10% actively sublimating. Two types of dust features are seen: broad fans and highlycollimated “jets” in the sunward hemisphere that can be traced to the surface. The source region of the main jet feature, which resolved into at least three smaller “jets” near the surface, is consistent with an area around the rotation pole that is constantly illuminated by the sun during the encounter. Within a few nuclear radii, entrained dustis rapidly accelerated and fragmented and geometrical effects caused from extended source regions are present, as evidenced in radial intensity profiles centered on the jet features that show an increase in source strength with increasing cometocentric distance. Asymmetries in the dust from dayside to nightside are pronounced and may show evidence of lateral flow transporting dust to structures observed in the nightside coma. A summary of the initial results of the Deep Space 1 Mission is provided, highlighting the new knowledge that has been gained thus far.
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