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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The presence of bombesin (gastrin-releasing peptide, GRP)-like immunoreactivity in mucosal endocrine cells of human fetal lung is well established. In this study we have investigated the localisation of pro-GRP mRNA and GRP gene products and compared the distribution and levels of extractable GRP-and C-terminal flanking peptide of human pro-GRP-like immunoreactivity in order to verify synthesis and to investigate their coexistence and molecular forms. Human fetal lungs (14 to 23 weeks gestation) were immunostained, and extracts were assayed using regionspecific antisera to pro-GRP. Additional antisera to chromogranin and protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) were used for immunostaining by the peroxidase anti-peroxidase technique and for double immunofluorescence staining using antisera raised in two species. Immunoreactivity for both bombesin (GRP) and flanking peptide was seen mainly in the same endocrine cells, but more cells were stained with antisera to flanking peptide than with antiserum to bombesin (GRP). In situ hybridisation showed that pro-GRP mRNA was present and thus synthesis of the peptides was taking place. Endocrine cells and nerve fibres were PGP 9.5-immunoreactive, and a subset of cells was immunoreactive for bombesin gene products. Radioimmunoassay and chromatography show that pro-GRP is present in both the uncleaved and cleaved forms, and, in agreement with immunocytochemistry results, that an excess of C-terminal peptide of pro-GRP is detectable. It is therefore concluded that GRP-like peptides and flanking peptide are co-local-ised in human pulmonary endocrine cells, but the latter is found in larger concentrations than free GRP. Thus GRP-like peptides may be secreted separately from the flanking peptide(s) of pro-GRP. Furthermore PGP 9.5 appears to be a useful marker for endocrine cells in the respiratory epithelium of human fetal lung.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The distribution of endothelin mRNA and immunoreactivity in the human brain was investigated using the technique of in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. Cryostat sections from 22 cases of neurologically normal adult human brain, collected 3–7 h post-mortem were hybridized with35S-labelled complementary (c)RNA probes prepared from the 3′ non-coding region of endothelin-1 cDNA, and the chromosomal genes encoding endothelin-2 and -3. In situ hybridization with all three cRNA probes revealed labelled neuronal cell bodies in laminae III–VI of the parietal, temporal and frontal cortices. Labelled cells were also seen, scattered throughout the para- and periventricular; supraoptic and lateral hypothalamic nuclei, the caudate nucleus, amygdala, hippocampus, basal nucleus of Meynert, substantia nigra, raphe nuclei, Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum and in the dorsal motor nuclei of the vagus of the medulla oblongata. The distribution of neurones immunoreactive to endothelin was similar to that of endothelin mRNA, although fewer immunoreactive cells throughout the brain, were noted. Immunoreactive fibres were present mainly in the cortex and hypothalamus, and to a lesser extent in the brain stem. Combined in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry on the same section revealed the presence of endothelin-1 mRNA and immunoreactivity in the same cortical neuronal cell. Colocalisation studies in the cortex revealed endothelin-1 mRNA and immunoreactivity in a number of cells which also expressed neuropeptide Y mRNA and immunoreactivity. In the hypothalamus and basal nucleus of Meynert endothelin immunoreactivity was colocalised to a subset of neurophysin- and galanin-immunoreactive cell bodies respectively. Endothelin mRNA and immunoreactivity was also seen in some blood vessel endothelial cells. The findings of endothelin mRNAs and immunoreactivity in heterogenous neuronal populations further emphasises the potential role of endothelin as a neuropeptide, probably having diverse actions in the nervous system of man.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The distribution of endothelin mRNA and immunoreactivity in the human brain was investigated using the technique of in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. Cryostat sections from 22 cases of neurologically normal adult human brain, collected 3–7 h post-mortem were hybridized with 35S-labelled complementary (c)RNA probes prepared from the 3′ non-coding region of endothelin-1 cDNA, and the chromosomal genes encoding endothelin-2 and -3. In situ hybridization with all three cRNA probes revealed labelled neuronal cell bodies in laminae III–VI of the parietal, temporal and frontal cortices. Labelled cells were also seen, scattered throughout the para- and periventricular; supraoptic and lateral hypothalamic nuclei, the caudate nucleus, amygdala, hippocampus, basal nucleus of Meynert, substantia nigra, raphe nuclei, Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum and in the dorsal motor nuclei of the vagus of the medulla oblongata. The distribution of neurones immunoreactive to endothelin was similar to that of endothelin mRNA, although fewer immunoreactive cells throughout the brain, were noted. Immunoreactive fibres were present mainly in the cortex and hypothalamus, and to a lesser extent in the brain stem. Combined in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry on the same section revealed the presence of endothelin-1 mRNA and immunoreactivity in the same cortical neuronal cell. Colocalisation studies in the cortex revealed endothelin-1 mRNA and immunoreactivity in a number of cells which also expressed neuropeptide Y mRNA and immunoreactivity. In the hypothalamus and basal nucleus of Meynert endothelin immunoreactivity was colocalised to a subset of neurophysin- and galanin-immunoreactive cell bodies respectively. Endothelin mRNA and immunoreactivity was also seen in some blood vessel endothelial cells. The findings of endothelin mRNAs and immunoreactivity in heterogenous neuronal populations further emphasises the potential role of endothelin as a neuropeptide, probably having diverse actions in the nervous system of man.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Bombesin ; Human pro-bombesin ; Lung ; Small cell carcinoma
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Small cell carcinoma of the lung is a highly malignant tumour. Its known biological products which include bombesin, do not allow the prediction of tumour behaviour. Molecular biology has revealed the amino acid sequence of human pro-bombesin, which consists of a signal peptide, the bioactive bombesin molecule and a C-terminal peptide. We have raised a rabbit antiserum to the first (N-terminal) 21 amino acids of the predicted C-terminal peptide. A total of 505 (361 neuroendocrine) surgically resected pulmonary tumours were evaluated for the presence of immunoreactive bombesin and C-terminal peptide. Strong immunostaining was obtained with the antiserum to the C-terminal peptide of human probombesin in 70% of the small cell carcinomas (175/250), in 63% of atypical (aggressive) carcinoids (31/49) but only in 16% of benign carcinoids (10/62). In contrast, bombesin immunostaining was focal and only moderately strong and the relative proportion of positive cases was quite evenly distributed amongst the neuroendocrine tumours: 35% of carcinoids (22/62), 22% of atypical carcinoids (11/49) and 25% of small cell carcinoma (62/250). None of the squamous, adeno, or large cell undifferentiated carcinomas were immunoreactive for bombesin or the C-terminal peptide. Radioimmunoassay and chromatography of extracts of tumours recovered from wax blocks revealed high concentrations of C-terminal peptide immunoreactivity (241±66 pmol/g of tissue) in all 12 small cell carcinomas studied, moderate concentrations in carcinoid tumours (50±7 pmol/g) and none in non-small cell carcinomas. Patients with tumours showing immunoreactivity to the C-terminal peptide of human pro-bombesin had a significantly shorter survival time than those without immunoreactive peptide (185±16.49 days, mean± SEM, and with 1128±226 days, respectivelyP〉 0.02). The apparent presence of the C-terminal peptide of human pro-bombesin in higher concentrations than bombesin in the more malignant class of endocrine tumours, mainly small cell carcinomas associated with the poorest prognosis, suggests that the antiserum to this C-terminal peptide is not only a useful pathological marker but may prove to be of value in investigating the biological behaviour of small cell carcinomas and predicting the clinical course of the disease.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1090-6487
    Keywords: 81.15.Gh ; 81.15.Kk ; 85.40.Sz
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract A new method of obtaining quantum-size GaAs1−x Sbx (x⩽0.45) layers is proposed. The method consists in laser vaporization of solid metallic antimony near the substrate directly in the reactor. The antimony concentration is set by the antimony sputtering time with the arsine flux shut off. The polarization of the photoluminescence of the obtained layers indicates the formation of quantum wires. The heterostructures obtained are used to fabricate laser diodes.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] IT has frequently been suggested that antibodies exist which react with various kinds of deoxyribonucleic acid1. Such antibodies are the products of immunization of animals with artificially obtained antigens2-3 and with antigenic complexes containing DNA extracted from cells of higher animals4'5, ...
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cybernetics and systems analysis 25 (1989), S. 464-471 
    ISSN: 1573-8337
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract A discrete-time and discrete-phase-space model is constructed describing how one moving object pursues a target located in a given region in the Euclidean space. Numerical search algorithms are developed.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of mathematical sciences 80 (1996), S. 1617-1627 
    ISSN: 1573-8795
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Astrophysics 38 (1995), S. 232-240 
    ISSN: 1573-8191
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract We propose a new interpretation of the albedo-shifting method in the theory of radiative transfer, based on constructing a three-factor factorization of the initial operator of the transfer integral equation in a homogeneous half-space. Such an approach simplifies the albedo-shifting method while simultaneously widening its potential and limits of applicability.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Astrophysics 38 (1995), S. 398-399 
    ISSN: 1573-8191
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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