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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-09-23
    Description: Blood-feeding insects such as mosquitoes are efficient vectors of human infectious diseases because they are strongly attracted by body heat, carbon dioxide and odours produced by their vertebrate hosts. Insect repellents containing DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide) are highly effective, but the mechanism by which this chemical wards off biting insects remains controversial despite decades of investigation. DEET seems to act both at close range as a contact chemorepellent, by affecting insect gustatory receptors, and at long range, by affecting the olfactory system. Two opposing mechanisms for the observed behavioural effects of DEET in the gas phase have been proposed: that DEET interferes with the olfactory system to block host odour recognition and that DEET actively repels insects by activating olfactory neurons that elicit avoidance behaviour. Here we show that DEET functions as a modulator of the odour-gated ion channel formed by the insect odorant receptor complex. The functional insect odorant receptor complex consists of a common co-receptor, ORCO (ref. 15) (formerly called OR83B; ref. 16), and one or more variable odorant receptor subunits that confer odour selectivity. DEET acts on this complex to potentiate or inhibit odour-evoked activity or to inhibit odour-evoked suppression of spontaneous activity. This modulation depends on the specific odorant receptor and the concentration and identity of the odour ligand. We identify a single amino-acid polymorphism in the second transmembrane domain of receptor OR59B in a Drosophila melanogaster strain from Brazil that renders OR59B insensitive to inhibition by the odour ligand and modulation by DEET. Our data indicate that natural variation can modify the sensitivity of an odour-specific insect odorant receptor to odour ligands and DEET. Furthermore, they support the hypothesis that DEET acts as a molecular 'confusant' that scrambles the insect odour code, and provide a compelling explanation for the broad-spectrum efficacy of DEET against multiple insect species.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3203342/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3203342/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pellegrino, Maurizio -- Steinbach, Nicole -- Stensmyr, Marcus C -- Hansson, Bill S -- Vosshall, Leslie B -- R01 DC008600/DC/NIDCD NIH HHS/ -- R01 DC008600-02/DC/NIDCD NIH HHS/ -- R01 DC008600-02S1/DC/NIDCD NIH HHS/ -- R01 DC008600-03/DC/NIDCD NIH HHS/ -- R01 DC008600-03S1/DC/NIDCD NIH HHS/ -- R01 DC008600-03S2/DC/NIDCD NIH HHS/ -- R01 DC008600-04/DC/NIDCD NIH HHS/ -- R01 DC008600-05/DC/NIDCD NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Sep 21;478(7370):511-4. doi: 10.1038/nature10438.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Neurogenetics and Behaviour, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, Box 63, New York, New York 10065, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21937991" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Avoidance Learning/drug effects ; Brazil ; DEET/*pharmacology ; Drosophila Proteins ; Drosophila melanogaster/classification/genetics/metabolism ; Insect Repellents/*pharmacology ; Ligands ; *Odors ; Olfactory Receptor Neurons/drug effects ; Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Receptors, Odorant/chemistry/*genetics/*metabolism ; Species Specificity ; Substrate Specificity
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2013-01-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Knaden, Markus -- Hansson, Bill S -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Jan 11;339(6116):151-2. doi: 10.1126/science.1232930.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Evolutionary Neuroethology, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, 07745 Jena, Germany. mknaden@ice.mpg.de〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23307729" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Flowers ; Male ; Manduca/*physiology ; Neurons/*physiology ; Octopamine/*physiology ; *Plant Nectar
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1570-7458
    Keywords: Noctuidae ; moth ; olfactory receptors ; plant volatiles ; electrophysiology ; single-sensillum recordings
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Chirality ; enantiomers ; sex pheromones ; (3Z,9Z)-(6R,7S)-epoxynonadecadiene ; (3Z,9Z)-(6S,7R)-epoxynonadecadiene ; (6Z,9Z)-(3S,4R)-epoxynonadecadiene ; Colotois pennaria ; Erannis defoliaria ; Agriopis aurantiaria ; A. marginaria ; A. leucophearia ; Lepidoptera ; Geometridae ; electroantennogram ; field trapping
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Enantiomer separation of (6Z,9Z)-cis-3,4-epoxynonadecadiene and (3Z,9Z)-cis-6,7-epoxynonadecadiene could be achieved using chiral high-resolution gas chromatography and a cyclodextrin-bond column. (3Z,9Z)-(6R,7S)-Epoxynonadecadiene was identified from ovipositor extracts ofColotois pen-Naria, while inErannis defoliaria the 6S,7R-enantiomer was found. In field trapping tests pure synthetic enantiomers caught only conspecific males of these species. (3Z,6Z,9Z)-Nonadecatriene was found in both species, while the presence of (3Z,6Z,9Z)-heneicosatriene was indicated inC. Pennaria only. A 10∶10∶3 blend of (3Z,9Z)-(6R,7S)-epoxynonadecadiene, (3Z,6Z,9Z)-heneicosatriene, and (3Z,6Z,9Z)-nonadecatriene was found to be optimal for catchingC. Pennaria, whileE. Defoliaria males were optimally caught by a 1∶1 mixture of (3Z,9Z)-(6S,7R)-epoxynonadecadiene and (3Z,6Z,9Z)-nona-decatriene. (6Z,9Z)-(3S,4R)-Epoxynonadecadiene was identified from ovipositor extracts ofAgriopis (Erannis) aurantiaria. In field tests the pure enantiomer proved to be a highly specific sex attractant for both the late autumn/early winter flyingA. Aurantiaria and the late winter/early spring flyingA. Leucophearia. Males ofAgriopis marginaria, which fly in late winter/early spring, were attracted to (3Z,9Z)-(6S,7R)-epoxynonadecadiene. The addition of (3Z,6Z,9Z)-nonadecatriene to theS,R-enantiomer increased captures. Optimal catches were recorded with a 10∶3 epoxide-hydrocarbon blend. Enantiomer specificity in all species was confirmed in EAG measurements.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1570-7458
    Keywords: sex pheromone ; lima-bean pod borer ; Etiella zinckenella ; Lepidoptera ; Phycitidae ; (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate ; (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate ; (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate ; tetradecyl acetate ; Hungary ; Egypt
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé A partir de femelles d'E. zinckenella d'origines hongroise et égyptienne, nous avons isolé quatre composés par chromatographie en phase gazeuse avec ionisation de flamme et électroantennographie (EAD): l'acétate de tétradécanyl, l'acétate (Z)-11-tétradécényl, l'acétate (E)-11-tétradécényl et l'acétate (Z)-11-tétradécényl. Les acétates monoinsaturés donnent les meilleures réponses en EAG parmi une série d'acétates tétradécényls et de tétradécénols. Les quatre composés mélangés dans les mêmes proportions que dans l'extrait de la phéromone ont attiré un nombre significatif de mâles tant en Egypte qu'en Hongrie. Dans un test préliminaire de soustraction, la meilleure capture a été réalisée par le mélange ternaire d'acétates monoinsaturés.
    Notes: Abstract Four compounds, tetradecyl acetate, (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate, (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate and (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate were identified from female sex pheromone extracts of Hungarian and Egyptian lima-bean pod borers (Etiella zinckenella Tr., Lepidoptera: Phycitidae) by gas chromatography with flame ionization (FID) and electroantennographic (EAD) detection. In EAG studies these monoun-saturated acetates gave the best responses in a series of other tetradecenyl acetates and tetradecenols. The four component blend of the identified components in similar ratios as in the pheromone extract attracted significant numbers of male lima-bean pod borers in both Hungary and Egypt. In a preliminary subtraction test best capture was achieved by the ternary mixture of the monounsaturated acetates.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1570-7458
    Keywords: Inheritance ; receptor ; single sensillum ; electrophysiology ; Ctenopseustis ; Lepidoptera ; Tortricidae ; olfactory response ; sex pheromone
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Les réactions olfactives des sensilles mâles sensibles aux phéromones ont été examinées par enregistrement de l'extrémité de la sensille chez les tordeuses C. obliquana Walker et C. sp. ‘ropeana’. Les enregistrements ont porté sur 281 sensilles des lignées parentales et des croisements réciproques de F1, F2 et de croisements en retour maternel et paternel. Les résultats des enregistrements d'une sensille ont été soumis à une analyse en composantes principales. Chez les mâles de chaque lignée parentale un seul type physiologique de sensille a été découvert; une cellule répond par un pic grand au principal constituant de la phéromone femelle conspécifique. (Z)-8-acétate tétradécényl (Z8-14:OAc) pour C. obliquana, et (Z)-5-acétate tétradécényl (Z5-14:OAc) pour C. sp. ‘ropeana’. Une seconde type de cellule dans les sensilles des deux espèces de mâles présente un pic petit pour Z5-14:OAc et pour l'acétate tétradécyl (14:OAc) chez C. obliquana, et pour C. sp. ‘ropeana’ au Z8-14:OAc. Les réponses des sensilles des différents types de mâles hybrides sont plus hétérogènes que celles des sensilles de leurs pères. Un schéma général pourrait cependant être décelé, correspondant au schéma prévu avec une hérédité d'un facteur dominant liée au sexe sur le chromosome Z de C. sp. ‘ropeana’. La variation plus accentuée chez les hybrides ne peut être expliquée par ce modèle, et pourrait impliquer des gènes additionnels.
    Notes: Abstract The olfactory response from male pheromone sensitive sensilla was investigated in the endemic New Zealand brownheaded leafrollers Ctenopseustis obliquana (Walker) and C. sp. ‘ropeana’ (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae). The responses from 281 sensilla from the parental strains and from both the reciprocal crosses, including F1, F2 and maternal and paternal backcrosses were recorded, and statistically analysed using a multivariate analysis. In males of both the parental strains, a large amplitude cell responded to the main pheromone component of the conspecific female, in C. obliquana (Z)-8-tetradecenyl acetate (Z8-14:OAc) and in C. sp ‘ropeana’ (Z)-5-tetradecenyl acetate (Z5-14:OAc). Both male types also possessed a small amplitude cell, which in C. obliquana responded weakly to Z5-14:OAc and tetradecyl acetate (14:OAc), and in C. sp ‘ropeana’ responded to Z8-14:OAc. The responses from the different types of hybrid males were more variable than the responses from parental males. A main pattern could, however be seen, corresponding with the expected pattern in a sex-linked inheritance on the Z-chromosome of a C. sp ‘ropeana’ type dominant genetic factor. The more pronounced variation in the hybrids could not be explained by this model, and might be due to the involvement of additional genes.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Keywords: Sex pheromone ; Electroantennogram ; Single sensillum ; Olfaction ; Diprionol
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Electroantennographic and single sensillum recordings were performed on male pine sawfly, Neodiprion sertifer, antennae. Responses to the sex pheromone component (2S, 3S, 7S)- 3,7-dimethyl-2-pentadecenyl (diprionyl) acetate (SSS:OAc), to the behavioral inhibitor (2S, 3R, 7R)-diprionyl acetate (SRR:OAc), to the six other enantiomers of diprionyl acetate, and to the biosynthetic precursor diprionol were recorded. Responses to trans-perillenal, a monoterpene identified in female gland extracts and to (2S, 3S, 7S)-diprionyl propionate (SSS:OPr), a field attractant for N. sertifer and some related sawfly species were also recorded. EAG recordings demonstrated a high antennal sensitivity to SSS:OAc and to SSS:OPr. A somewhat lower response was elicited by SRR:OAc. Single sensillum recordings revealed 8–12 different cells firing in each sensillum, corresponding to the number of cells observed in earlier morphological investigations. Out of these cells all, except one, responded to SSS:OAc and to SSS:OPr. No differences in the response to the two components could be observed. The largest amplitude cell in each sensillum was specifically tuned to the behavioral antagonist, SRR:OAc. The pheromone perception system encountered in male pine sawflies thus differs clearly from that observed in moths.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Keywords: Antennal lobe projection ; Single sensillum ; Locust ; Receptor neuron ; Electrophysiology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Olfactory receptor neurons present in two morphological sensillum types on the male Schistocerca gregaria antenna were for the first time investigated physiologically when stimulated with behaviourally relevant odours. Neurons present in trichoid/basiconic sensilla showed clear excitatory responses to compounds present in the male-produced aggregation pheromone and also to a plant produced compound. Sensilla could be categorised physiologically according to the responses of their receptor neurons to the tested stimuli. Also receptor neurons present in sensilla coeloconica responded to aggregation pheromone components, but always in an inhibitory fashion. These neurons could, however, be excited by a plant produced compound and by some acids present in the nymphal odour. The antennal lobe of the male S. gregaria was observed to contain about 1000 very small glomerular structures. Single receptor neurons were stained from the antenna to the antennal lobe using a cobalt lysine technique. These stainings revealed a multi glomerular axonal branching pattern of antennal receptor neurons.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Keywords: Key wordsAndrena nigroaenea ; Sex pheromone ; Chemical mimicry ; Orchid pollination ; Wax compounds
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We investigated the female-produced sex pheromone of the solitary bee Andrena nigroaenea and compared it with floral scent of the sexually deceptive orchid Ophrys sphegodes which is pollinated by Andrena nigroaenea males. We identified physiologically and behaviorally active compounds by gas chromatography with electroantennographic detection, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and behavioral tests in the field. Dummies scented with cuticle extracts of virgin females or of O.sphegodes labellum extracts elicited significantly more male reactions than odorless dummies. Therefore, copulation behavior eliciting semiochemicals are located on the surface of the females' cuticle and the surface of the flowers. Within bee and orchid samples, n-alkanes and n-alkenes, aldehydes, esters, all-trans-farnesol and all-trans-farnesyl hexanoate triggered electroantennographic responses in male antennae. Most of the alkanes and alkenes occurred in similar patterns both in the bees and orchids. O. sphegodes leaf extracts contained mostly the same compounds but in different proportions. In behavioral tests with synthetic compounds, blends of alkenes triggered significantly more approaches and pounces of the males whereas alkanes were not more attractive than odorless dummies. Since alkanes and alkenes together were most attractive, we conclude they constitute the bees' sex pheromone as well as the pseudocopulation-behavior releasing orchid-odor bouquet.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Key words Olfaction ; Chemoreceptors ; Aggregation pheromone ; Scanning electron microscopy ; Transmission microscopy ; Antennae ; Schistocerca gregaria (Insecta)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The fine structure and distribution of various types of antennal sensilla in three nymphal stages and in adults of both solitary-reared (solitary) and crowd-reared (gregarious) phases of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria, were investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Four types of sensilla were identified: sensilla basiconica, s. trichodea, s. coeloconica and s. chaetica. S. basiconica contain up to 50 sensory neurons, each of which displays massive dendritic branching. The sensillar wall is penetrated by a large number of pores. In contrast, s. trichodea contain one to three sensory neurons that branch to give five or six dendrites in the sensillar lumen; the sensillum wall is penetrated by relatively few pores. The s. coeloconica are situated in spherical cuticular pits on the antennal surface. The s. coeloconica are of two types: one type contains one to three sensory neurons with double sensillar walls penetrated by slit-like pores, whereas the second type contains four sensory neurons with non-porous double sensillar walls. The s. chaetica have a flexible socket and a thick non-porous sensillum wall and contain four sensory neurons that send unbranched dendrites to a terminal pore. A fifth sensory neuron of the s. chaetica terminates in a tubular body at the base of the hair. S. basiconica and coeloconica are normally distributed over the entire antennal flagellum, with a concentration in the middle segments; s. trichodea have three areas of concentration on the 5th, 10th and 14th flagellar segments. Sensilla chaetica are most abundant on the terminal segment. Locusts raised in solitary conditions have more olfactory sensilla (s. basiconica and s. coeloconica) than crowd-reared locusts. The difference in sensillar numbers is more evident in adults than in nymphs. These results suggest that differences in the odour-mediated behaviour of nymphs and adults, and between the phases of S. gregaria, may be attributable to differences at the sensory input level.
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