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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-10-21
    Description: In nature, helical macromolecules such as collagen, chitin and cellulose are critical to the morphogenesis and functionality of various hierarchically structured materials. During tissue formation, these chiral macromolecules are secreted and undergo self-templating assembly, a process whereby multiple kinetic factors influence the assembly of the incoming building blocks to produce non-equilibrium structures. A single macromolecule can form diverse functional structures when self-templated under different conditions. Collagen type I, for instance, forms transparent corneal tissues from orthogonally aligned nematic fibres, distinctively coloured skin tissues from cholesteric phase fibre bundles, and mineralized tissues from hierarchically organized fibres. Nature's self-templated materials surpass the functional and structural complexity achievable by current top-down and bottom-up fabrication methods. However, self-templating has not been thoroughly explored for engineering synthetic materials. Here we demonstrate the biomimetic, self-templating assembly of chiral colloidal particles (M13 phage) into functional materials. A single-step process produces long-range-ordered, supramolecular films showing multiple levels of hierarchical organization and helical twist. Three distinct supramolecular structures are created by this approach: nematic orthogonal twists, cholesteric helical ribbons and smectic helicolidal nanofilaments. Both chiral liquid crystalline phase transitions and competing interfacial forces at the interface are found to be critical factors in determining the morphology of the templated structures during assembly. The resulting materials show distinctive optical and photonic properties, functioning as chiral reflector/filters and structural colour matrices. In addition, M13 phages with genetically incorporated bioactive peptide ligands direct both soft and hard tissue growth in a hierarchically organized manner. Our assembly approach provides insight into the complexities of hierarchical assembly in nature and could be expanded to other chiral molecules to engineer sophisticated functional helical-twisted structures.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chung, Woo-Jae -- Oh, Jin-Woo -- Kwak, Kyungwon -- Lee, Byung Yang -- Meyer, Joel -- Wang, Eddie -- Hexemer, Alexander -- Lee, Seung-Wuk -- R21DE018360/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Oct 19;478(7369):364-8. doi: 10.1038/nature10513.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22012394" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bacteriophage M13/chemistry/*physiology ; Biomimetic Materials/chemical synthesis/*chemistry ; Cell Line ; Macromolecular Substances/chemistry ; Mice ; Optical Rotation ; Tissue Culture Techniques/instrumentation ; Virion/chemistry
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1615-6110
    Keywords: Caucalideae ; Scandiceae ; Apiaceae ; Umbelliferae ; chloroplast DNA restriction sites ; rps16 intron
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Evolutionary relationships among members of Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) tribe Caucalideae Spreng. and related taxa were inferred from maximum parsimony analyses of chloroplast DNA restriction sites andrps16 intron sequences and the results compared to an existing phylogeny for the group based on nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequences. While these three data sets were not similar in size or composition, the relationships among the shared taxa, with few exceptions, were concordant. Three major lineages are recognized, coinciding with the previously delimited Scandiceae subtribes Daucinae Dumort. (Agrocharis, Ammodaucus, Cuminum, Daucus, Orlaya, Pachyctenium, Pseudorlaya), Torilidinae Dumort. (Astrodaucus, Caucalis, Glochidotheca, Lisaea, Szovitsia, Torilis, Turgenia, Yabea), and Scandicinae Tausch (Anthriscus, Kozlovia, Myrrhis, Osmorhiza, Scandix). Included in Daucinae is representation from tribe Laserpitieae (Laser, Laserpitium, Melanoselinum, Monizia, Polylophium). Daucinae and Torilidinae arise as sister taxa in the chloroplast DNA-based phylogenies, whereas in the ITS trees relationships among the three major lineages are unresolved. Unexpectedly, three species ofFerula ally with Daucinae and Torilidinae. The position ofArtedia is equivocal, occurring either sister to Daucinae in the ITS trees, within Torilidinae in the intron trees, or sister to Torilidinae upon analysis of combined ITS and intron data.Chaetosciadium trichospermum emerges withinTorilis, and is recognized asTorilis trichosperma (L.) Spreng.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1520-6041
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-2486
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography
    Notes: Climatic warming during the last glacial–interglacial transition (LGIT) was punctuated by reversals to glacial-like conditions. Palaeorecords of ecosystem change can help document the geographical extent of these events and improve our understanding of biotic sensitivity to climatic forcing. To reconstruct ecosystem and climatic variations during the LGIT, we analyzed lake sediments from southwestern Alaska for fossil pollen assemblages, biogenic-silica content (BSiO2%), and organic-carbon content (OC%). Betula shrub tundra replaced herb tundra as the dominant vegetation of the region around 13 600 cal BP (cal BP: 14C calibrated calendar years before present), as inferred from an increase of Betula pollen percentages from 〈〈 5% to 〉〉 20% with associated decreases in Cyperaceae, Poaceae, and Artemisia. At c. 13 000 cal BP, a decrease of Betula pollen from 28 to 〈〈 5% suggests that shrub tundra reverted to herb tundra. Shrub tundra replaced herb tundra to resume as the dominant vegetation at 11 600 cal BP. Higher OC% and BSiO2% values suggest more stable soils and higher aquatic productivity during shrub-tundra periods than during herb-tundra periods, although pollen changes lagged behind changes in the biogeochemical indicators before c. 13 000 cal BP. Comparison of our palaeoecological data with the ice-core dδ18O record from Greenland reveals strikingly similar patterns from the onset through the termination of the Younger Dryas (YD). This similarity supports the hypothesis that, as in the North Atlantic region, pronounced YD climatic oscillations occurred in the North Pacific region. The rapidity and magnitude of ecological changes at the termination of the YD are consistent with greenhouse experiments and historic photographs demonstrating tundra sensitivity to climatic forcing.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-06-16
    Description: Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway drives colorectal cancer growth by deregulating expression of downstream target genes, including the c-myc proto-oncogene. The critical targets that mediate the functions of oncogenic c-Myc in colorectal cancer have yet to be fully elucidated. Previously, we showed that activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR contributes to colorectal cancer growth and metastasis. Here, we show that Deptor, a suppressor of mTOR, is a direct target of Wnt/β-catenin/c-Myc signaling in colorectal cancer cells. Inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin or knockdown of c-Myc decreased, while activation of Wnt/β-catenin or overexpression of c-Myc increased the expression of Deptor. c-Myc bound the promoter of Deptor and transcriptionally regulated Deptor expression. Inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin/c-Myc signaling increased mTOR activation, and the combination of Wnt and Akt/mTOR inhibitors enhanced inhibition of colorectal cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Deptor expression was increased in colorectal cancer cells; knockdown of Deptor induced differentiation, decreased expression of B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 (Bmi1), and decreased proliferation in colorectal cancer cell lines and primary human colorectal cancer cells. Importantly, our work identifies Deptor as a downstream target of the Wnt/β-catenin/c-Myc signaling pathway, acting as a tumor promoter in colorectal cancer cells. Moreover, we provide a molecular basis for the synergistic combination of Wnt and mTOR inhibitors in treating colorectal cancer with elevated c-Myc.Significance: The mTOR inhibitor DEPTOR acts as a tumor promoter and could be a potential therapeutic target in colorectal cancer. Cancer Res; 78(12); 3163–75. ©2018 AACR.
    Print ISSN: 0008-5472
    Electronic ISSN: 1538-7445
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-09-08
    Description: Background/Aim: The study focused on identifying the mechanisms or drugs that could sensitize P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-overexpressing resistant KBV20C cancer cells to halaven (HAL) or vincristine (VIC) treatment. Materials and Methods: Based on the relatively low dose or IC 50 values for sensitizing anti-mitotic drug-resistant KBV20C cells, the aging-related drugs donepezil (DON) and sildenafil citrate (SID) were selected. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), western blotting, and annexin V analyses were performed to investigate the mechanism of action of DON and SID in HAL-treated KBV20C cells. Results: DON or SID reduced cell viability, increased G 2 arrest, and up-regulated the expression of the DNA damaging protein pH2AX when used as co-treatment with HAL. DON and SID induced both early and late apoptosis in KBV20C cells in response to HAL treatment, without increasing autophagy. VIC-DON and VIC-SID co-treatments increased sensitization of KBV20C cells, suggesting that DON and SID can be combined with other anti-mitotic drugs for sensitizing resistant cancer cells. When the sensitization efficacies of DON and SID were compared to that of the anti-psychotic repositioned drug fluphenazine (FLU), HAL-SID or HAL-FLU co-treatments were found to have better sensitization effects than HAL-DON suggesting that HAL-SID sensitization mechanism is different from that of HAL-DON. In addition, DON was found to have higher P-gp inhibitory activity than FLU or SID. Conclusion: These results suggest that HAL-FLU or HAL-SID sensitization in KBV20C cells involves both cytotoxic and P-gp inhibitory effects, whereas HAL-DON sensitization may involve only P-gp inhibitory activity of DON.
    Print ISSN: 0250-7005
    Electronic ISSN: 1791-7530
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-10-02
    Description: Background/Aim: The present study was designed to identify drugs that could sensitize P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-overexpressing resistant KBV20C cancer cells to treatment with Halaven (HAL) or vincristine (VIC). Materials and Methods: Using relatively low doses or IC 50 concentrations of drugs to sensitize anti-mitotic drug-resistant KBV20C cells, pimozide (PIM) sensitized HAL-resistant KBV20C cancer cells, with higher P-gp inhibitory activity than another anti-psychotic drug, fluphenazine (FLU). Results: The first-generation P-gp inhibitor verapamil required a dose that was similar to that of PIM for P-gp inhibition, suggesting that PIM has a similar specificity for binding P-gp to prevent efflux of anti-mitotic drugs. Furthermore, co-treatment with PIM and another anti-mitotic drug, VIC, also increased sensitization of KBV20C cells, suggesting that PIM can be combined with other anti-mitotic drugs to sensitize resistant cancer cells. PIM caused a reduction in cell viability and an increase in the number of cells arresting at the G 2 phase of the cell cycle. PIM induced both early and late apoptosis in KBV20C cells in response to HAL treatment. Furthermore, the DNA damage marker pH2AX, the cell-cycle protein pRb, and the pro-apoptotic protein C-PARP levels increased after HAL-PIM co-treatment, indicative of a mechanism involving G 2 phase arrest and an increase in the number of cells undergoing apoptosis. Conclusion: PIM may be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of cancers that are resistant to anti-mitotic drugs.
    Print ISSN: 0250-7005
    Electronic ISSN: 1791-7530
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Keywords: Nutrition
    Print ISSN: 0009-9147
    Electronic ISSN: 1530-8561
    Topics: Medicine
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