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  • 1
    ISSN: 0304-4165
    Keywords: Serum thymic factor ; Thymulin ; Zn binding
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Keywords Apoptosis ; ontogeny ; T lymphocyte ; autoimmunity ; diabetes mellitus.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Activated lymphocytes of autoimmune non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice exhibit an increased resistance to programmed cell death (PCD) following withdrawal of interleukin-2 (IL-2). In the present study, we found that resistance of NOD T lymphocytes to PCD was increased as early as 1 week of age, hence several weeks before the invasion of the pancreas by inflammatory cells, which is compatible with a role of the NOD apoptotic phenotype in the autoimmune susceptibility of this strain. In the thymus, mature single positive but not double positive or double negative thymocytes were more resistant to PCD in NOD compared to B6 mice. Moreover, in both NOD and B6 mice, CD4+ T cells were more resistant to PCD induced by IL-2 deprivation than CD8+ cells. As a result, NOD CD4+ T cells were remarkably resistant to cell death induced in this manner. In relation with this increased resistance to apoptosis, expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-x protein was upregulated in activated T cells of NOD mice, most notably after 24 h of IL-2 deprivation. These results should help us to understand the relationship of the NOD apoptotic phenotype to the emergence of the NOD mouse autoimmune disease. [Diabetologia (1998) 41: 178–184]
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Diabetologia 37 (1994), S. S90 
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Diabetes mellitus ; autoimmunity ; animal models ; autoantigens ; autoantibodies ; T cells
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Insulin-dependent diabetes develops as a cosequence of the selective destruction of insulin-producing cells by an autoimmune reaction. However, the precise series of events which trigger anti-islet autoreactive T cells is still being investigated. Major issues will need to be raised before a comprehensive view of the anti-islet autoimmune reaction can be delineated. These include defining the primary site of activation of autoreactive lymphocytes and exploring hypotheses to explain the chronicity of the diabetes process. These issues all relate with the more general dilemma of the actual role of the islets of Langerhans in breaking self tolerance to beta-cell antigens. By studying non-obese diabetic mice deprived of beta cells following a single injection of a high dose of alloxan at 3 weeks of age, we recently obtained evidence that the activation of autoreactive T cells requires the presence of target islet cells in order to develop.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Islet cell antibodies ; antigens ; immunofluorescence ; HLA
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Conventional detection of islet cell antibodies is based on indirect immunofluorescence performed on frozen human pancreas sections. The number and nature of epitopes recognized by antibodies detected by such techniques are unknown. To determine the existence of heterogeneous fluorescence patterns of islet cell antibodies on pancreatic sections, we selected two sera showing a distinctive granular fluorescence. We then tested random sera from patients with Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus for their ability to block ultimate binding of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled immunoglobulins purified from these two sera with a characteristic granular pattern. Among 102 subjects with recent-onset Type 1 diabetes, 79 had detectable anti-islet cell antibodies; 21 showed complete blockade of the binding to islets of granular fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled immunoglobulins. The majority of these 21 patients were women carrying a DR3 non-DR4 DQB1*0201 allele, with under-representation of DRB1*0402 and 0405. Discrimination between islet cell antigenic specificities may help in identifying islet cell autoantibodies in autoimmune Type 1 diabetes.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Key words Non-obese diabetic mouse, regulatory T cells, CD4+ T cells, transfer.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The NOD mouse, which shows many features of human IDDM, is extensively used to evaluate the role of T lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes. The development of diabetes in this model appears to be controlled by a finely tuned immunoregulatory balance between autoaggressive T cells and regulatory immune phenomena, the disruption of which may result in destruction of insulin-secreting cells. The absolute requirement of sublethal irradiation to permit transfer of the disease to non-diabetic adult syngeneic mice provides indirect evidence for the presence of regulatory T cells in non-diabetic NOD mice. We have previously reported that the reconstitution of irradiated recipients by CD4+ T cells from non-diabetic female NOD mice blocks the transfer of diabetes by spleen cells from diabetic donors. We now report evidence that anti-CD4 monoclonal antibodies can substitute for irradiation in rendering adult NOD male mice susceptible to diabetes transfer by diabetogenic spleen cells. Efficient diabetes transfer can be achieved in non-irradiated adult NOD recipients provided they are thymectomized and CD4+ T-cell depleted prior to the transfer. The role of thymectomy is to limit T cell regeneration after anti-T cell monoclonal antibody challenge. Our data confirm that regulatory CD4+ T-cells, which efficiently counterbalance diabetogenic cells, are present in adult NOD male animals. [Diabetologia (1994) 37: 337–343]
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Non-obese diabetic mouse ; regulatory T cells ; CD4 + T cells ; transfer
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The NOD mouse, which shows many features of human IDDM, is extensively used to evaluate the role of T lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes. The development of diabetes in this model appears to be controlled by a finely tuned immunoregulatory balance between autoaggressive T cells and regulatory immune phenomena, the disruption of which may result in destruction of insulin-secreting cells. The absolute requirement of sublethal irradiation to permit transfer of the disease to non-diabetic adult syngeneic mice provides indirect evidence for the presence of regulatory T cells in non-diabetic NOD mice. We have previously reported that the reconstitution of irradiated recipients by CD4 + T cells from nondiabetic female NOD mice blocks the transfer of diabetes by spleen cells from diabetic donors. We now report evidence that anti-CD4 monoclonal antibodies can substitute for irradiation in rendering adult NOD male mice susceptible to diabetes transfer by diabetogenic spleen cells. Efficient diabetes transfer can be achieved in non-irradiated adult NOD recipients provided they are thymectomized and CD4 + T-cell depleted prior to the transfer. The role of thymectomy is to limit T cell regeneration after anti-T cell monoclonal antibody challenge. Our data confirm that regulatory CD4 + T-cells, which efficiently counterbalance diabetogenic cells, are present in adult NOD male animals.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0014-5793
    Keywords: Consensus sequence ; Immunoblotting ; Intermediate filament protein ; Monoclonal antibody ; Neurofilament ; Peripherin
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1420-908X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Thed-Penicillamine (d-Pen.) treatment can induce some diseases accompanied by autoantibodies: lupus, pemphigus, myasthenia. The authors present the results of a systematic study of autoantibody occurrence duringd-Pen.-treatment of the rheumatoid arthritis (RA): (1) Anti-nuclear antibodies are slightly positive in 34% of the untreated RA. They appear or enhance in 44% of the treated patients (22/50). They reach high titers (1/500) in two clinical-induced lupus and in three asymptomatic cases. (2) Anti-native DNA antibodies are not found in untreated patients. They become markedly enhanced in two clinical lupus as in three asymptomatic cases (3/50). (3) Anti-epidermal intercellular substance-antibodies are absent in non-treated as well as on pemphigus-free treated patients (0/40). They are slightly elevated in 5 induced pemphigus. (4) Anti-striated muscle antibodies are absent in non-treated patients, rarely and moderately elevated (3/40) in the asymptomaticd-Pen.-treated group. These findings could have a practical interest for the survey of the treatment.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 217 (1968), S. 658-659 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Immunologically active cells can be detected by an immunocy to-adherence technique?rosette formation3,4. One rosette-forming cell (RFC) is found for every thousand lymphocytes in the spleen of Swiss and (757.BZ6 non-immunized mice incubated with sheep red blood cells (RBC). We have studied the in ...
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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