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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-7276
    Keywords: organ-specific metastasis ; spleen ; T lymphoma
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Organ-specific metastasis of tumour cells may result from selective invasion and growth or from selective host cell responses. The present study demonstrates how selective interactions with the host affect the metastatic pattern of two murine T cell hybridoma lines, derived from the BW 5147 thymoma. Upon intravenous inoculation into syngeneic mice BW-14 cells preferentially colonize the kidneys, whereas BW-19 cells metastasize mainly to the spleen and the liver. The organ-specific behaviour of the two cell lines appears to be determined by a differential interaction with the spleen microenvironment. Inoculation of BW-14 cells into splenectomized mice results in increased liver colonization, indicating a negative effect of the spleen on BW-14 tumour development in the liver. Macrophages are likely to be involved in this inhibition, since inoculation of BW-14 cells into macrophage-depleted mice also leads to increased liver and spleen metastasis. In contrast, inoculation of BW-19 cells into splenectomized mice results in decreased liver metastasis, which indicates that the spleen exerts a stimulating effect on BW-19 cells. Macrophages also appear to be involved in this stimulation, since macrophage depletion causes a similar decrease in liver and spleen colonization. Hence components of the splenic microenvironment, probably macrophages, exert inhibiting or stimulating activities on BW-14 or BW-19 cells respectively, thereby determining the subsequent liver or kidney colonization.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-7233
    Keywords: somatic hybridization ; metastasis ; tumor progression
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Somatic cell hybridization between nonmetastatic tumor cells and normal cells of the lymphoreticular system results in hybrid cells manifesting metastatic properties of defined target organ specificity. Thus, fusion of the nonmetastatic BALB/c originated NSI plasmacytoma with C57BL B lymphocytes resulted in hybridomas, each of which were metastatic. Of 10 hybridomas, 7 generated metastases in the spleen and liver, whereas 3 generated liver metastases. The generation of liver metastases by hybridomas which homed to both spleen and liver, but not by those which homed to the liver only, was controlled by the spleen. The acquisition of metastatic properties via somatic cell fusion seems to represent a general principle, in which the normal partner determines the target organ specificity for the metastatic growth. Thus, fusion of SP2/O myeloma cells with syngeneic B lymphocytes also resulted in a hybrid cell metastasizing to the spleen and liver, yet a somatic hybrid between NSI and a macrophage or dendritic-like cell metastasized to the lung. Cell surface molecules encoded by the genome of the normal partner was demonstrated to control the target organ specificity: antibodies against MHC-encoded antigens of the normal B cell partner prevented the generation of metastases by hybridomas metastasizing to the spleen and liver, but not by those metastasizing to the liver only. This is in accordance with the function of MHC molecules on lymphocytes in controlling their homing to lymphoid organs. Hybridomas of T cell lymphomas also manifested metastatic properties. Analysis of the cell surface Thy-1 antigens of a hybridoma (DCH10), produced via somatic fusion between BW5145 lymphoma and a putative macrophage cell indicated that cells of liver metastases (DCH10-Li) generated by the hybrid cells might have undergone further somatic cell fusion in vivo with host (T?) cells. These cells have acquired new metastatic properties, generating metastases in spleen, liver and kidneys. In fact, even the inoculation of the parental BW lymphoma cells resulted in a case of liver metastasis (BW-Li). Such BW-Li cells, upon reinoculation, also generated metastases in the spleen, liver and kidneys. Analysis of the Thyl phenotype indicated that BW-Li cells may also have undergone somatic cell fusion in vivo with host (T?) cells, resulting in the acquisition of metastatic properties. The pattern of cell-cell interactions (adhesion, infiltration) with liver cell monolayers of BW-Li cells and of DCH10-Li (T-cell lymphomas) was identical, and differed from cells of liver metastases of the myeloma-B cell hybridomas which might be based on responses to liver growth signals. Accordingly, the morphology of liver metastases generated by the two categories of hybridomas was different. It appears therefore, that (a) the acquisition of metastatic properties following somatic cell fusion with normal lymphoreticular cells is of a general significance; (b) somatic cell fusion provides an experimental system for the analysis of molecular properties determining the acquisition of metastatic capability; and (c) it may also represent a mechanism for tumor progression in vivo.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-7276
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Using anin vitro monolayer assay (MIA) we analyzed the invasive behaviour of a panel of B-cell hybridomas prepared by the fusion of non-invasive, non-metastatic NSO plasmacytoma cells and normal murine B-cells. Interaction of these hybridomas with fibroblast-like monolayers consisted mostly of adhesion on top of the monolayers, whereas only a fraction of these cells penetrated through the monolayer. This is in sharp contrast with the highly invasive properties displayed by T-cell hybridomas. Whereas T-cell hybridomas highly infiltrated monolayers of rat hepatocyrein vitro, B-cell hybridomas neither adhered to nor infiltrated hepatocyte monolayers. We found a good correlation between the degree of adhesion of B-cell hybridomas to fibroblast-like mono-layers and their metastatic capabilities upon i.v. injection into syngeneic animals. Unlike T-cell hybridomas which formed diffuse metastasis in liver and spleen, B-cell hybridomas generated nodular metastatic lessions. When normal LPS-stimulated B-lymphocytes were tested in the fibroblast-MIA, only part of the population infiltrated the monolayers. This again contrasts with T-lymphocytes where a majority of the cells penetrated through the monolayers. These results suggest that (i) B-lymphocytes express invasive properties, albeit to a lesser extent than T-lymphocytes, (ii) non-invasive B-lymphoma cells can acquire invasiveness following cell fusion with a normal B-cell, (iii) these invasive properties contribute to the malignancy of the hybridomas when tested in recipient animals.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-7276
    Keywords: cell adhesion molecule ; cytolysis ; L1 ; monolayer invasion assay ; tumor necrosis factor-α
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The cell adhesion molecule (CAM) Ll is involved in homotypic and heterotypic adhesion between neural cells. It has recently also been identified on leucocytes. We have investigated the expression of L1 on hematopoietic tumor cell lines and found that several tumors including the ESb-MP lymphoma are positive for L1. A potential role for L1 in spontaneous metastasis formation was examined using these cells. From wild-type (wt) L1high lymphoma cells we selected by a fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) stable L1low expression variants. Syngeneic DBA/2 mice injected subcutaneously with L1low clones showed faster primary tumor growth, developed visceral metastases significantly faster and died earlier than animals carrying L1high wt cells. L1high revertants from the L1low variants showed again a reduced metastatic capacity and a malignancy similar to the wt cells. Expression of L1 on the tumor variants and revertants correlated directly with their homotypic aggregation behaviour in vitro. L1 expression correlated negatively with metastatic capacity. These results suggest that L1 molecules may contribute to the overall malignant potential of the lymphoma cells, presumably by interfering with cell-cell interactions critical for tumor growth and dissemination.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-4986
    Keywords: endogenous lectin ; flow cytometry ; orosomucoid
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Macrophages from various origins are known to express membrane lectins that mediate the endocytosis of mannose-bearing glycoconjugates. Most macrophage tumor cell-lines lack such receptors. In this paper we show by flow cytometry analysis that a newly generated macrophage hybridoma (2C11–12), which displays several macrophage characteristics, also expresses mannose membrane lectins, resulting in the internalization of fluoresceinylated neoglycoproteins into acidic compartments. Thioglycolate elicited mouse peritoneal macrophages and the 2C11–12 hybridomas were compared by flow cytometry with regard to the binding and endocytosis of α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) variants separated by affinity chromatography on immobilized concanavalin A. AGP C eluted specifically with methyl α-mannopyranoside, which contains two bi-antennary oligosaccharides, was endocytosed as mannosylated serum albumin (Man-BSA). In both types of macrophages, the fluoresceinylated ligands were internalized in acidic compartments as demonstrated by the fluorescence intensity increase upon monensin post-incubation. However the behaviour of the internalized ligands was found to be quite different. AGP C and Man-BSA were rapidly degraded by thioglycolate elicited peritoneal macrophages and excreted in the medium as small peptide fragments; conversely they remained a longer time in the 2C11–12 hybridoma.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0006-291X
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Rabbit and mouse antibodies raised against micrococcus and streptococcus bind or agglutinate a variety of mammalian cells1, including a small number of autologous lymphoid cells obtained from the immunized animal (R. Hamers, personal communication). Three cloned lymphoid cell lines were selected ...
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0309-1651
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1065-6995
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In parallel with the Th1/Th2 dichotomy, macrophages are capable of developing into functionally and molecularly distinct subpopulations, due to differences in, for example cytokine environment and pathological conditions. While the best-studied, classically activated macrophage is induced by type I stimuli such as IFN-γ, a type II cytokine environment antagonizes the classical activation of macrophages and is capable of alternatively activating macrophages. However, molecular markers associated with these type II cytokine-dependent, alternatively activated macrophages remain scarce. Besides the earlier documented markers macrophage mannose receptor and arginase 1, we recently demonstrated that murine alternatively activated macrophages are characterized by increased expression of FIZZ1 and Ym. We now report that expression of the two members of the mouse macrophage galactose-type C-type lectin gene family, termed mMGL1 and mMGL2, is induced in diverse populations of alternatively activated macrophages, including peritoneal macrophages elicited during infection with the protozoan Trypanosoma brucei or the Helminth Taenia crassiceps, and alveolar macrophages elicited in a mouse model of allergic asthma. We also demonstrate that, in vitro, interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 upregulate mMGL1 and mMGL2 expression and that, in vivo, induction of mMGL1 and mMGL2 is dependent on interleukin-4 receptor signalling. Moreover, we show that regulation of MGL expression is similar in human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages. Hence, macrophage galactose-type C-type lectins represent novel markers for both murine and human alternatively activated macrophages; thus, paving the way for further characterization of the phenotype of macrophages occurring in Th2 conditions.
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