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  • 1
    ISSN: 1572-8595
    Keywords: implantable cardioverter-defibrillator ; defibrillation threshold ; defibrillation energy requirement
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Introduction: A variety of factors, including the number of defibrillation electrodes and shocking capacitance, may influence the defibrillation efficacy of an implantable defibrillator system. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the defibrillation energy requirement using a 125 uF two-electrode defibrillation system and a 90 uF three-electrode defibrillation system. Methods and Results: The defibrillation energy requirements measured with both systems were compared in 26 consecutive patients. The two-electrode system used a single transvenous lead with two defibrillation coils in conjunction with a biphasic waveform from a 125 uF capacitor. The three-electrode system used the same transvenous lead, utilized a pectoral implantable defibrillator generator shell as a third electrode, and delivered the identical biphasic waveform from a 90 uF capacitor. The two-electrode system was associated with a higher defibrillation energy requirement (10.8±5.5 J) than was the three-electrode system (8.9±6.7 J, p 〈 0.05), however, the leading edge voltage was not significantly different between systems (361±103 V vs. 397±123 V, P = 0.07). The two-electrode system also had a higher shocking resistance (49.0±9.0 ohms vs. 41.4±7.3 ohms, p 〈 0.001) and a lower peak current (7.7±2.6 A vs. 10.1±3.7 A, p 〈 0.001) than the three-electrode system. Conclusions: A three-electrode defibrillation system that utilizes a dual coil transvenous lead and a subcutaneous pectoral electrode with lower capacitance is associated with a lower defibrillation energy requirement than is a dual coil defibrillation system with higher capacitance. This finding suggests that the utilization of a pectoral generator as a defibrillation electrode in conjunction with smaller capacitors is a more effective defibrillation system and may allow for additional miniaturization of implantable defibrillators.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1572-8595
    Keywords: Radiofrequency Energy ; PSVT ; Catheter Ablation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Temperature monitoring may be helpful for ablation of accessory pathways, however its role in ablation of atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) using the slow pathway approach is unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to prospectively compare slow pathway ablation for AVNRT using fixed power or temperature monitoring. The study included 120 patients undergoing ablation for AVNRT. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either fixed power at 32 watts, or to temperature monitoring with a target temperature of 60°C. The primary success rate was 72% in the fixed power group and 95% in the temperature monitoring group (p=0.001). The ablation procedure duration (35±29 min vs 35±30 min; p=0.9), fluoroscopic time (32±17 vs 35±19 min; p=0.4), mean number of applications (10.2±8.1 vs 8.4±7.9; p=0.2), and coagulum formation per application (0.2% vs 0.5%; p=0.6) were statistically similar in the fixed power and temperature monitoring groups, respectively. The mean temperature (47.3±4.8°C vs 48.6±3.8°C; p〈0.01), and the temperature associated with junctional ectopy (48.2±3.8°C vs 49.3±3.6°C, p〈0.01) were less for the fixed power than the temperature monitoring group. In the temperature monitoring group, only 31% of applications achieved an electrode temperature of 60°C. During follow up of 6.6±3.6 months there were two recurrences in the fixed power group and one in the temperature monitoring group (p=1.0). In summary, power titration directed by temperature monitoring was associated with an improved primary procedural success rate. Applications of energy were associated with a temperature of approximately 50°C with both techniques, suggesting that there is a low efficiency of heating in the posterior septum.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1540-8167
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Unipolar Electrogram. Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of the unipolar electrogram for identifying the earliest site of ventricular activation. The earliest site of ventricular activation may be identified with the unipolar electrogram by the absence of an R wave. However, the accuracy of this technique is unknown. Methods and Results: A single ventricular premature complex was induced mechanically at the tip of an electrode catheter to simulate a ventricular premature depolarization site of origin. Unipolar electrograms were recorded from the right ventricular septum at the tip electrode and at 2, 5, 8, and 11 mm from the electrode tip in 20 patients. No R waves were detected at the ventricular premature depolarization site of origin. R waves were detected in 4 of 20 patients (20%) at 2 mm from the tip electrode and 7 of 20 patients (35%) at 5, 8, and 11 mm from the tip electrode. An R wave was not observed at distances ≤ 11 mm from the site of tachycardia origin in 13 of 20 patients (65%). Conclusions: While an R wave in the unipolar electrogram can he seen as close as 2 mm from the site of impulse origin, the absence of an R wave as an indicator of the site of impulse origin in the right ventricle is highly inaccurate. Therefore, the absence of an R wave in the unipolar electrogram is unlikely to be an adequate guide for identification of an effective target site for ablation of right ventricular tachycardia.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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