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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: monoamine oxidase inhibitors ; tranylcypromine ; N-(2-cyanoethyl)tranylcypromine ; catecholamines ; brain ; prodrug
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The disposition of the N-cyanoethyl analogue of tranylcypromine (TCP) and the TCP formed from it have been studied in the rat brain following intraperitoneal (ip) administration (0.1 mmol/kg) and the resultant data compared with those obtained following an equimolar dose of TCP. Brain concentrations of the neurotransmitter amines dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) have also been determined, as well as the percentage inhibition of monoamine oxidase (MAO) types A and B. Our results indicate that the N-cyanoethyl analogue may be a useful prodrug of TCP, providing lower but more sustained concentrations of TCP in brain. Brain levels of DA were increased in a similar pattern after CE-TCP or TCP. Brain levels of NA were decreased by TCP at most time intervals, while CE-TCP produced a much less pronounced effect. Both CE-TCP and TCP inhibited MAO-A and MAO-B, with maximum inhibition occurring 60 min after CE-TCP dosing and 30 min after dosing with TCP, times at which brain concentrations of CE-TCP and TCP were at the maximum.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: chirality ; fluoxetine ; norfluoxetine ; desipramine ; iprindole ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The antidepressant fluoxetine (FLU) and its N-demethylated metabolite, norfluoxetine (NFLU), each contains a chiral center. The combination of FLU and desipramine (DMI), another antidepressant, has been reported to be useful in treatment of depression, to dramatically increase plasma levels of DMI and also to produce more rapid β-adrenergic receptor down-regulation in brain than caused by DMI alone. We have now begun studies on the effects of this drug combination on the levels of FLU and NFLU enantiomers in the rat. In addition, the combination of FLU and iprindole (IPR) was also investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated intraperitoneally with either normal saline vehicle, DMI (5 mg/kg/day), (R,S)-FLU (10 mg/kg/day) or DMI (5 mg/kg/day) + (R,S)-FLU (10 mg/kg/day) for 4 days. Following the last treatment, 24 h urine samples were collected. Rats were sacrificed and brains were removed. For the IPR study, rats were pretreated with either saline or IPR-HCl (11.2 mg/kg) and then treated 1 h later with (R,S)-FLU. After 5 h, the rats were sacrificed and brains were removed. Brain and urine samples were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection for free (R)- and (S)-FLU and (R)- and (S)-NFLU after extraction and reaction with (-)-(S)-N-(trifluoroacetyl)prolyl chloride. The results from the brains of the rats treated with DMI/FLU indicate that levels of the enantiomers of both FLU and NFLU were significantly increased over those seen in the animals receiving (R,S)-FLU alone. In the IPR/FLU treated rats, an increase in the brain levels of both (R)- and (S)-FLU was noted when compared with rats receiving (R,S)-FLU alone; however, there appeared to be no increase in the brain levels of NFLU enantiomers. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Key words Tyrosine ; Dopamine ; Noradrenaline ; Cerebrospinal fluid ; Cercopithecus aethiops ; Alcohol
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  An amino acid mixture devoid of tryptophan, given orally, was previously shown to reduce cerebrospinal fluid levels of tryptophan and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in vervet monkeys, as compared to a control mixture containing all essential amino acids. In the present study, we tested the possibility that a similar amino acid mixture containing tryptophan, but devoid of phenylalanine and tyrosine (the amino acid precursors of catecholamine neurotransmitters), would influence dopamine and noradrenaline metabolism. Five hours after the administration of this mixture to vervet monkeys, cerebrospinal fluid levels of homovanillic acid and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethylene glycol were reduced by 27.4% and 26.9%, respectively. Both effects were statistically significant. Plasma tyrosine (-30%) and the ratio of tyrosine to the sum of other large neutral amino acids (ΣLNAA) were also significantly reduced. The behavioral efficacy of phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion was compared with that of tryptophan depletion in a primate model of voluntary alcohol consumption. All three drinks lowered alcohol consumption, but the effects of the tryptophan-deficient amino acid mixture were not different from those of the balanced amino acid control. The phenylalanine/tyrosine-deficient drink differentially lowered alcohol consumption, consistent with other data in this species and elsewhere implicating dopamine in the rewarding effects of alcohol.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Key words Forced swimming test ; (±) Pindolol ; 5-HT1A receptor ; 5-HT1B receptor ; 5-HT2 receptor ; 5-HT3 receptor
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The present study was undertaken to identify the receptor subtypes involved in (±) pindolol’s ability to enhance the effects of antidepressant drugs in the mouse forced swimming test. Interaction studies were performed with S 15535 (presynaptic 5-HT1A receptor agonist) and methiothepin (5-HT1B autoreceptor antagonist) in an attempt to attenuate or potentiate antidepressant-like activity. (±) Pindolol was tested in combination with selective agonists and antagonists at 5-HT1, 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptor subtypes. Pretreatment with S 15535 and methiothepin attenuated the activity of paroxetine, fluvoxamine and citalopram (32 mg/kg, IP; P 〈 0.01). (±) Pindolol (32 mg/kg, IP.) induced significant anti-immobility effects when tested in combination with 5-methoxy-3-(1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-4-pyridyl)-1H-indole (RU 24969) (1 mg/kg, IP; P 〈 0.05), 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)-4-[-(2-phthalimido) butyl]piperazine) (NAN 190) (0.5 mg/kg; P 〈 0.05) and ondansetron (0.00001 mg/kg, IP; P 〈 0.01). Pretreatment with NAN 190 (0.5 mg/kg, IP) potentiated the effects of RU 24969 (1 mg/kg, IP; P 〈 0.05) and (±) pindolol (32 mg/kg, IP; P 〈 0.05) in the forced swimming test, as did ondansetron (0.00001 mg/kg, IP). Significant additive effects were induced when RU 24969 (1 mg/kg, IP) was tested in combination with NAN 190 (0.5 mg/kg, IP; P 〈 0.05), (±) pindolol (32 mg/kg, IP; P 〈 0.05) and ondansetron (0.0000 mg/kg, IP; P 〈 0.05). 8-Hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) (1 mg/kg, IP) or ketanserin (8 mg/kg, IP) did not induce significant antidepressant-like effects with any of the agonists/antagonists tested. The results of the present study suggest that pindolol is acting at presynaptic 5-HT1B serotonergic receptors, in addition to the 5-HT1A subtype, in augmenting the activity of antidepressants in the mouse forced swimming test.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Key words Phenelzine ; GABA ; Biogenic amines ; Norepinephrine ; Dopamine ; Serotonin ; Learning ; Memory ; Spatial water maze ; Inhibitory avoidance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Phenelzine (PLZ) is a non-selective monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor commonly used to treat depression and panic disorder. In addition to increasing levels of biogenic amines in the brain, PLZ elevates brain levels of the amino acid gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA; Baker et al. 1991; present study). Given the extensive evidence implicating biogenic amines and GABA in mnemonic processes, PLZ may affect learning and memory. To investigate this possibility, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given PLZ sulfate (15 or 30 mg/kg, based on free base weight) 2 h prior to training in a continuous multiple trial inhibitory avoidance (CMIA) and spatial water maze task. Retention was assessed 48 h later. The results indicated that PLZ enhanced CMIA and impaired water maze retention performance. Compared to control rats, rats given PLZ took significantly longer to re-enter the shock compartment and swam longer distances before reaching the escape platform on the retention tests. These effects of PLZ did not appear to be the result of PLZ-induced changes in acquisition or retrieval processes, activity levels, or footshock sensitivity. Combined, these findings indicate that PLZ influences memory in a task-dependent manner. These differential effects of PLZ may be the result of contrasting influences of GABA and biogenic amines on memory.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0306-042X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Numerous amines of biological interest can acetylated in aqueous solution, extracted and then perfluoroacylated for analysis by electron-capture gas chromatography. The structures of the products which are obtained can be confirmed by recording and interpreting their mass spectra. The electron impact mass spectral behaviour of various derivatized amines (amphetamine, ephedrine, p-hydroxyamphetamine, 3-methoxytyramine, norephedrine, normetanephrine, norpseudoephedrine, p-octopamine, 2-phenylethylamine, phenylethanolamine, pseudoephedrine, phentermine, m-tyramine and p-tyramine) is described.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-6830
    Keywords: antidepressants ; benzodiazepine receptors ; clomipramine ; desipramine ; fluoxetine ; 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors ; maprotiline ; phenelzine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary 1. The effects of chronic administration of five antidepressant drugs on the benzodiazepine and 5-HT2A binding sites in the same rat brain were assessed. 2. Clomipramine, desipramine, maprotiline, fluoxetine, and phenelzine (all 10 mg/kg/day) were administered s.c. for 21 days by Alzet osmotic minipumps. 3. Results showed that none of the drugs changed the density or affinity of benzodiazepine binding sites, yet at the same dose all the drugs with the exception of fluoxetine decreased binding to 5-HT2A receptors in the same animals.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cellular and molecular neurobiology 19 (1999), S. 301-308 
    ISSN: 1573-6830
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-6830
    Keywords: enantiomers ; racemic ; chiral ; stereoselective ; pharmacokinetics ; cytochrome P450 ; geometric isomers
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract 1. Many drugs used to treat psychiatric disorders contain a chiral center or a center of unsaturation and are marketed as a mixture of the resultant enantiomers or geometric isomers, respectively. These enantiomers or geometric isomers may differ markedly with regard to their pharmacodynamic and/or pharmacokinetic properties. 2. Examples of the effects of chiral centers or geometric centers on such properties are given for drugs from the following classes: antidepressants (tricyclics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, viloxazine, bupropion, trazodone, mianserin, venlaflaxine); benzodiazepines, zoplicone, and antipsychotics. 3. As described in this review, there are several notable examples of psychiatric drugs currently available where the individual enantiomers or geometric isomers differ considerably with regard to factors such as effects on amine transport systems, interactions with receptors and metabolizing enzymes, and clearance rates from the body. Indeed, relatively recent developments in analytical and preparative resolution of racemic and geometric drug mixtures and increased interest in developing new drugs which interact with specific targets, which have been described in detail at the molecular level, have resulted in increased emphasis on stereochemistry in drug development.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-6830
    Keywords: tranylcypromine ; 4-fluorotranylcypromine ; monoamine oxidase ; norepinephrine ; dopamine ; 5-hydroxytryptamine ; ring hydroxylation ; gas chromatography ; high-pressure liquid chromatography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary 1. The 4-fluoro analogue of the monoamine oxidase-inhibiting antidepressant tranylcypromine was compared to the parent drug with regard to the following: inhibition of monoamine oxidases A and Bin vitro andex vivo; levels of both drugs in brain, liver, and blood after injection of equimolar doses; and effects on brain levels of the amines 2-phenylethylamine, tryptamine, norepinephrine, dopamine, and 5-hydroxytryptamine. 2. 4-Fluorotranylcypromine was found to be 10 times more potent than tranylcypromine at inhibiting monoamine oxidases A and Bin vitro in rat brain homogenates. 3. After administration (0.1 mmol/kg, ip), 4-fluorotranylcypromine attained higher brain and liver levels and provided greater availability than did tranylcypromine after the injection of an equimolar amount. 4. At the dose employed, theex vivo monoamine oxidases A and B inhibitory profiles in brain and liver over a 24-hr period following tranylcypromine and 4-fluorotranylcypromine treatment were not different from each other. 5. Although the drugs had similar effects on inhibition of brain MAOex vivo, they differed from one another at several time intervals in the increases in concentrations of 2-phenylethylamine, tryptamine, norepinephrine, dopamine, and 5-hydroxytryptamine produced in brain. 6. In conclusion, fluorination of tranylcypromine in the 4 position of the phenyl ring produced a drug which was more potent than the parent drug at inhibiting MAOin vitro and attained higher levels in brain than did tranylcypromine itself after intraperitoneal injection of equimolar amounts of the drugs. 4-Fluorotranylcypromine increased the concentrations of trace amines, catecholamines, and 5-hydroxytryptamine in brain at most time intervals following intraperitoneal injection, and at some time intervals there were differences from tranylcypromine with regard to the amine concentrations produced.
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