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  • 1
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  Deutscher Kongress für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie; 71. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Unfallchirurgie, 93. Tagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Orthopädie und Orthopädische Chirurgie, 48. Tagung des Berufsverbandes der Fachärzte für Orthopädie; 20071024-20071027; Berlin; DOCE26-981 /20071009/
    Publication Date: 2007-10-10
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 2
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    German Medical Science; Düsseldorf, Köln
    In:  68. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Unfallchirurgie, 90. Tagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Orthopädie und Orthopädische Chirurgie und 45. Tagung des Berufsverbandes der Fachärzte für Orthopädie; 20041019-20041023; Berlin; DOC04dguE5-151 /20041019/
    Publication Date: 2004-10-20
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0300-9629
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0308-8146
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Cholinergic neural transplants ; Hippocampus ; Fornix ; Learning ; Monkey
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Monkeys with bilateral transections of the fornix were severely but selectively impaired at learning visuospatial conditional tasks presented in a Wisconsin General Test Apparatus. Bilateral transplantation of cholinergic-rich embryonic basal forebrain tissue into the hippocampus led to complete recovery from this specific learning impairment across a range of task difficulties. Administration of the direct cholinergic agonist pilocarpine to ungrafted animals immediately before testing also reduced this impairment, suggesting that the graft-associated recovery was mediated by acetylcholine release. Transection of the fornix produced a marked loss of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) staining confined to hippocampus and entorhinal cortex relative to controls. In all transplanted animals densely AChE-staining cellular masses were seen bilaterally in temporal lobe structures, with fibre outgrowth into surrounding host tissue.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Dopaminergic grafts ; Caudate nucleus Putamen ; 6-Hydroxydopamine ; Marmoset
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The behaviour of marmosets with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the nigrostriatal bundle and grafts of embryonic mesencephalon in either the caudate nucleus or the putamen was compared with that of lesion-alone and unoperated controls. The grafts comprised injections of cell suspensions prepared from marmoset ventral mesencephalon (i.e. allografts) targeted at four sites either entirely within the caudate nucleus or entirely within the putamen. Behavioural tests, including measures of amphetamine-induced rotation, neglect and use of each arm to retrieve food from inside tubes, were given before and after the 6-hydroxydopamine lesion and at regular intervals for 6 months after transplantation surgery. Grafts in the caudate nucleus reduced the ipsilateral rotation induced by amphetamine, whereas grafts in the putamen did not. Despite the absence of an effect on rotation, the putamen grafts were effective in reducing lesion-induced deficits on the task in which the marmosets were required to reach into tubes. In this latter task, the caudate grafts were also effective when the monkeys were given a free choice of which hand to use. However, when constrained to use the hand contralateral to the lesion and graft, the performance of the marmosets with caudate grafts was not significantly improved compared with that of lesion-alone controls. Neither the grafts in the caudate nucleus nor the grafts in the putamen abolished the contralateral somatosensory neglect induced by the lesion, although there was a trend for the marmosets with putamen grafts to contact the label on the contralateral side more quickly than those with caudate grafts or the lesion-alone controls. These results demonstrate that the location of embryonic nigral grafts within the primate striatum influences the profile of functional recovery.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words Hippocampus ; Fetal tissue grafts ; Learning ; Memory ; Monkey
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Monkeys with bilateral excitotoxic lesion of the CA1 field of the hippocampus were severely impaired at learning visuospatial conditional tasks. This was not a general spatial impairment, because the animals were not impaired on serial spatial reversal, which requires response flexibility in the spatial domain; they were not impaired at learning to choose the position furthest away from a single stimulus, which requires analysis of spatial layout of the test area, and they were not impaired at discriminating between two patterns that differed only in orientation. CA1-lesioned monkeys were impaired at learning a visuospatial conditional task when trials of the two component types ”if AA go left” and ”if BB go right” were presented according to either a pseudorandom or alternating schedule; but they were not impaired if one component type of trial was presented until three consecutive correct responses were made, followed by the other type of trial, to three consecutive correct responses. In all cases testing continued until a criterion of 27 of 30 consecutive correct responses across both types of trial was achieved. Although this suggests that CA1-lesioned animals are particularly prone to interference effects, they had no difficulty in learning ten concurrent visual discriminations presented against either a uniform background or with each discrimination presented against its own distinctive background, a condition that might reduce interference in unoperated monkeys. Interference following hippocampal damage might occur at a deeper level than stimulus identification such that animals with hippocampal damage may be able to learn about many aspects of different stimuli in parallel but may be unable to learn about multiple related aspects of the same subject matter. Monkeys with grafts of fetal CA1 tissue in the lesioned CA1 field showed significant improvement relative to CA1-lesioned animals on those tasks on which CA1-lesioned animals were impaired, although they remained impaired relative to control animals. This suggests that the grafts had produced some improvement in performance. Grafted monkeys did not differ from unoperated control monkeys or from CA1-lesioned monkeys on those tasks that were not sensitive to CA1 damage. This demonstrates that the grafts did not have an additional deleterious effect on cognitive performance.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Olfactory bulb ; Olfactory epithelium ; Transneuronal transport ; Basal forebrain ; WGA-HRP
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The sensory neurons of the olfactory epithelium, as a consequence of their odor detection function, contact both the external environment and the central nervous system. The possibility that substances applied to the epithelium might reach the central nervous system was investigated by the intranasal application of peroxidase-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin (WGA-HRP). WGA-HRP was transported through olfactory receptor axons to the glomerulus of the olfactory bulb. Reaction product was localized electron microscopically to tubulovesicular profiles and dense bodies in sensory axons. Evidence of transneuronal transport was indicated by reaction product localized in dense bodies in dendrites postsynaptic to receptor cell axons. Periglomerular, tufted and mitral cells in the olfactory bulb also were transneuronally labeled. Anterograde transneuronal labeling occured in the olfactory tubercle, piriform cortex and surrounding the lateral olfactory tract. Retrograde transneuronal label was found in neurons of the basal forebrain with the largest number of perikarya in the lateral nucleus of the horizontal limb of the diagonal band, a major source of cholinergic afferents to the olfactory bulb. These data suggest that substances, specifically those which bind to receptors, are transported from the olfactory receptor neurons in the nasal epithelium to the brain. Thus, the olfactory system may provide a route of entry for exogenous substances to the basal forebrain.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Substance P ; Tyrosine hydroxylase ; Olfactory bulb ; Dopamine ; Chinese hamster ; Syrian hamster ; Hamster
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Both tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the first enzyme in the catecholamine synthetic pathway, and substance P were localized previously to juxtaglomerular neurons in the hamster main olfactory bulb. These neurons had similar features and distribution suggesting that the enzyme, a marker for dopaminergic neurons, and the peptide transmitter, respectively, might coexist in the same cells. To determine if the two antigens occurred in the same neurons specific antibodies and a two color double label technique were utilized. Co-localization of the transmitters was not observed in any region of the olfactory bulb. In addition, interspecies differences were observed in the distribution of both TH and substance P labeled neurons which support the lack of co-localization in the double label studies. The data suggest that olfactory bulb neurons of similar morphology and distribution may synthesize different transmitters.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Acta neuropathologica 65 (1984), S. 138-144 
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Niemann-Pick disease ; Axon hillock-initial segment ; Neurite growth ; Golgi method
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Alterations in neuronal geometry in a feline model of sphingomyelin lipidosis were evaluated using Golgi staining. Neurons in cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, amygdala, thalamus, and cerebellum were impregnated and many were found to possess conspicuous enlargements at the axon hillock-initial segment region (meganeurites) and/or to sprout secondary neuritic processes from this same area. The latter were sometimes well developed and resembled small dendrites. These changes were cell type specific with distribution limited to certain types of neurons in select brain regions, while others remained normal, or underwent only simple somatic enlargement or generalized degenerative changes. Occasional cortical pyramidal neurons also displayed thinning of dendrites and extensive loss of dendritic spines. These observations add sphingomyelin lipidosis to other neuronal storage disorders in which aberrant neurite growth and meganeurite formation accompany lysosomal enzyme deficiency and the associated metabolic alterations and storage. Although megancurite-like expansions have been reported to occur in many storage disorders, the appearance of axon hillock-associated neurite growth on morphologically mature neurons has been identified heretofore only in the gangliosidoses, and in feline models of α-mannosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis type 1.
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