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  • 1
    Abstract: Serum carnosinase (CN-1) measurements are at present mainly performed by assessing enzyme activity. This method is time-consuming, not well suited for large series of samples and can be discordant to measurements of CN-1 protein concentrations. To overcome these limitations, we developed sandwich ELISA assays using different anti-CN-1 antibodies, i.e., ATLAS (polyclonal IgG) and RYSK173 (monoclonal IgG1). With the ATLAS-based assay, similar amounts of CN-1 were detected in serum and both EDTA and heparin plasma. The RYSKS173-based assay detected CN-1 in serum in all individuals at significantly lower concentrations compared to the ATLAS-based assay (range: 0.1-1.8 vs. 1-50 mug/ml, RYSK- vs. ATLAS-based, P 〈 0.01). CN-1 detection with the RYSK-based assay was increased in EDTA plasma, albeit at significantly lower concentrations compared to ATLAS. In heparin plasma, CN-1 was also poorly detected with the RYSK-based assay. Addition of DTT to serum increased the detection of CN-1 in the RYSK-based assay almost to the levels found in the ATLAS-based assay. Both ELISA assays were highly reproducible (R: 0.99, P 〈 0.01 and R: 0.93, P 〈 0.01, for the RYSK- and ATLAS-based assays, respectively). Results of the ATLAS-based assay showed a positive correlation with CN-1 activity (R: 0.62, P 〈 0.01), while this was not the case for the RYSK-based assay. However, there was a negative correlation between CN-1 activity and the proportion of CN-1 detected in the RYSK-based assay, i.e., CN-1 detected with the RYSK-based assay/CN-1 detected with the ATLAS-based assay x 100% (Spearman-Rang correlation coefficient: -0.6, P 〈 0.01), suggesting that the RYSK-based assay most likely detects a CN-1 conformation with low CN-1 activity. RYSK173 and ATLAS antibodies reacted similarly in Western blot, irrespective of PNGase treatment. Binding of RYSK173 in serum was not due to differential N-glycosylation as demonstrated by mutant CN-1 cDNA constructs. In conclusion, our study demonstrates a good correlation between enzyme activity and CN-1 protein concentration in ELISA and suggests the presence of different CN-1 conformations in serum. The relevance of these different conformations is still elusive and needs to be addressed in further studies.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22349764
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  • 2
    Keywords: ASSOCIATION ; primary prevention ; COST-EFFECTIVENESS ; inflammation ; CORONARY-HEART-DISEASE ; METAANALYSIS ; PRACTICE GUIDELINES ; STATIN THERAPY ; NONVASCULAR MORTALITY ; RISK PROFILE
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: There is debate about the value of assessing levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and other biomarkers of inflammation for the prediction of first cardiovascular events. METHODS: We analyzed data from 52 prospective studies that included 246,669 participants without a history of cardiovascular disease to investigate the value of adding CRP or fibrinogen levels to conventional risk factors for the prediction of cardiovascular risk. We calculated measures of discrimination and reclassification during follow-up and modeled the clinical implications of initiation of statin therapy after the assessment of CRP or fibrinogen. RESULTS: The addition of information on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to a prognostic model for cardiovascular disease that included age, sex, smoking status, blood pressure, history of diabetes, and total cholesterol level increased the C-index, a measure of risk discrimination, by 0.0050. The further addition to this model of information on CRP or fibrinogen increased the C-index by 0.0039 and 0.0027, respectively (P〈0.001), and yielded a net reclassification improvement of 1.52% and 0.83%, respectively, for the predicted 10-year risk categories of "low" (〈10%), "intermediate" (10% to 〈20%), and "high" (〉/=20%) (P〈0.02 for both comparisons). We estimated that among 100,000 adults 40 years of age or older, 15,025 persons would initially be classified as being at intermediate risk for a cardiovascular event if conventional risk factors alone were used to calculate risk. Assuming that statin therapy would be initiated in accordance with Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines (i.e., for persons with a predicted risk of 〉/=20% and for those with certain other risk factors, such as diabetes, irrespective of their 10-year predicted risk), additional targeted assessment of CRP or fibrinogen levels in the 13,199 remaining participants at intermediate risk could help prevent approximately 30 additional cardiovascular events over the course of 10 years. CONCLUSIONS: In a study of people without known cardiovascular disease, we estimated that under current treatment guidelines, assessment of the CRP or fibrinogen level in people at intermediate risk for a cardiovascular event could help prevent one additional event over a period of 10 years for every 400 to 500 people screened. (Funded by the British Heart Foundation and others.).
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23034020
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