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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: hypertension ; hypertensive therapy ; drug utilization ; therapeutic traditions ; international differences
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A questionnaire survey based on hypertension case histories was performed among a representative sample of 400 GP's and hospital doctors in Northern Ireland, Norway and Sweden, countries having markedly different utilization of antihypertensive drugs. We found a greater propensity to start antihypertensive drug treatment in Northern Ireland than in Norway and Sweden. This was true both in mild diastolic and isolated systolic hypertension. Yet the utilization of antihypertensive drugs in Sweden is about 60% higher than in Northern Ireland and 30% higher than in Norway. Swedish physicians preferred beta-blockers as their first choice to a greater extent than physicians in Northern Ireland and Norway who selected thiazides more often. In general, the choice of drugs agreed with the sales and prescribing patterns in the three countries. Besides providing more insight in therapeutic traditions the study indicates that the lower prescribing of antihypertensive drugs in Northern Ireland, and to some extent in Norway, compared to Sweden, might be due to differences in true or apparent morbidity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: General practitioners ; hypertension ; diagnosis/therapy/control ; prescription pattern ; hypotensive drugs ; drugsale statistics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Based upon regional drug sales statistics, two Norwegian counties with a consumption of hypotensives below and two above average were selected for a prescription study among general practitioners (GPs). The first part of the study involved collection of all the GPs' prescriptions for antihypertensive treatment during the month of October 1975. Immediately afterwards the GPs filled in a questionnaire in which they described their diagnostic and therapeutic criteria and procedures for arterial hypertension. Both parts of the study were analysed and compared. Of the GPs approached 154 (54%) participated. A total of 4095 prescriptions for 3253 patients were collected, 65% of whom were females and 35% were males. GPs alone treated 72% of the patients, and of the others 11% had been referred to specialists, 8% had been admitted to hospital, and 5% had had both procedures. The decision of whether or not to start drug treatment was based upon absolute systolic and diastolic BP levels as related to age, but various other patient factors, such as complicating diseases, family history of cardiovascular disease and cooperation/motivation for treatment, were also considered. The average control interval was 4.4 months (range 1 to more than 6 months) and it increased with the age of the patients. About half of the GPs started drug treatment in young patients with beta-blockers, whereas diuretics were preferred for older subjects. Of the total number of prescriptions, diuretics accounted for 50%, synthetic hypotensives (α-methyldopa, hydralazine, guanethidine etc.) for 33%, and beta-blockers for 17%. The therapeutic efficacy, in terms of BP reduction upon drug treatment, was evaluated in relation to age, both in those patients treated solely by GPs and in those referred to a specialist. Patient compliance and adverse drug reactions were also registered, although with considerable variation between the individual participating GPs. During postproject discussions, the GP-participants stated that this type of project was a valuable model for post-graduate training through testing of individual criteria for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: antihypertensive drugs ; antidiabetic drugs ; prescribing practice ; utilization ; Northern Ireland ; Norway ; Sweden
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The amount of antihypertensive and antidiabetic drugs based of defined daily doses per 1000 inhabitants per day varies two to three fold between Northern Ireland, Norway, and Sweden. We explored whether variations based on the universally applied defined daily doses might be accounted for by national differences in the actual average prescribed daily doses. Use of prescribed daily doses for antihypertensive drugs resulted in Northern Irish and Norwegian consumption figures which were respectively 40 and 21% lower than the Swedish one, compared to 38 and 25% when defined daily doses were used. The effect of population age-sex differences on the gross defined daily doses per 1000 inhabitants per day figures was determined by applying the Northern Irish or Norwegian age-sex group proportions to Swedish age-sex specific sales data. Taking population differences into account would have resulted in antihypertensive drug use being 21 rather than 38% less in Northern Ireland and 18 rather than 25% less in Norway. Also adjustment for prescribed daily doses left an unexplained difference of 23% between Sweden and Northern Ireland and 14% between Sweden and Norway. For oral antidiabetics use of prescribed daily doses resulted in a Northern Irish — Swedish difference of 62% compared to 67% when defined daily doses were used. Simultaneous adjustment for population differences and prescribed to defined daily dose variations left a 52% difference.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: diabetes ; therapy ; antidiabetic drugs ; therapeutic traditions ; questionnaire survey ; drug utilization ; international differences
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A questionnaire survey was carried out to explore differences in the approach to treatment of patients with Type II diabetes between physicians in Northern Ireland, Norway and Sweden, and to discover to what extent it could account for the three-fold difference in drug use between the countries. A representative sample of 400 physicians in each country was asked to give their opinions on the choice of therapy for three model cases designed to cover the spectrum of treatment — from diet alone to insulin. Significantly more Swedish (65%) than Northern Irish (51%) and Norwegian (52%) doctors suggested diet alone for uncomplicated diabetes recently discovered in a middle aged, overweight man. For symptomatic diabetes in a 76 year old overweight woman with few retinal microaneurysms, the majority of physicians in all three countries suggested treatment with sulphonylureas. Biguanides were here a more common alternative in Northern Ireland than in Scandinavia. For suspected secondary treatment failure in a 63 year old woman with no signs of complications, insulin was suggested by 71% of the Norwegian doctors but only by 44 and 49% of those in Northern Ireland and Sweden, respectively. General practitioners tended to suggest oral treatment earlier and to maintain it longer than hospital physicians. The study has demonstrated significant differences in the approach to treatment of Type II diabetes mellitus between physicians in the three countries. However, the differences were more prominent in the choice of drugs than in the threshold of drug treatment. The results also fit with qualitative but not with quantitative differences in drug sales between the countries, suggesting that important differences may exist in the prevalence of clinically recognized Type II diabetes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-739X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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