Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Hybrid analysis techniques based on the combined use of finite elements and the classical Bubnov-Galerkin approximation are presented for predicting nonlinear steady-state temperature distributions in structures and solids. In these hybrid techniques the modelling versatility of the finite element method is preserved and a substantial reduction in the number of degrees-of-freedom is achieved by expressing the vector of nodal temperatures as a linear combination of a small number of global-temperature modes, or basis vectors. The Bubnov-Galerkin technique is then used to compute the coefficients of the linear combination (i.e. the amplitudes of the global-temperature modes).The basis vectors chosen are the path derivatives commonly used in perturbation techniques, namely, the derivatives of the nodal-temperature vector with respect to a preselected control (or path) parameter(s). The vectors are generated by using the finite element model of the initial discretization. Also, the performance of alternate sets of basis vectors is investigated. In the alternate sets, only a few path derivatives are generated, and they are augmented by a constant vector representing a uniform temperature rise (or drop), and by reciprocal vectors with nonzero components equal to the reciprocals of the nonzero components of the path derivatives. A problem-adaptive computational algorithm is presented for efficient evaluation of global approximation vectors and generation of the reduced system of equations and for monitoring the accuracy of the reduced system of equations.The potential of the proposed reduction methods for the solution of large-scale, nonlinear steady-state thermal problems is also discussed. The effectiveness of these methods is demonstrated by means of four numerical examples, including conduction, convection and radiation modes of heat transfer.This study shows that the use of the uniform-temperature mode and the path derivatives as global approximation vectors significantly increases the accuracy of the solutions obtained by reduction methods, thereby enhancing the effectiveness of these methods for the solution of large-scale, nonlinear thermal problems.
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