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  • 1
    Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Menu energy labelling at point of purchase is gaining traction worldwide, yet the potential impact for different socioeconomic groups is unclear. We aimed to summarise evidence on the effectiveness of menu energy labelling by socioeconomic position (SEP). METHODS: A systematic search for papers published to September 2015 was conducted using terms for labelling, food outlets, and SEP. Quality of studies was assessed. Results were summarised across stages of an intervention logic pathway. RESULTS: Eighteen papers were identified. Of twelve studies reporting the effect of menu energy labelling in low SEP populations, six reported on purchase outcomes. All but one of these reported no positive effect of the policy for this population. Two of the five studies that compared purchase outcomes of menu labelling across SEP groups reported that the policy was effective overall. These two studies reported either a significant decline in fast food calories purchased from consumers in high (but not low) SEP neighbourhoods or a significantly greater decline in calories purchased among consumers visiting stores in higher SEP neighbourhoods post policy implementation. None of the included papers reached the highest quality score. CONCLUSIONS: The current evidence describing the impact of menu energy labelling within or across SEP is limited in quantity and quality. Of the two studies that reported a positive benefit of menu energy labelling overall, both identified a greater effect on fast food purchases among consumers visiting stores in high compared to low SEP neighbourhoods. It is difficult to know whether the absence of effectiveness reported in low SEP populations represents a true lack of effectiveness or is a result of a more general lack of policy effectiveness or the limited quality of the reviewed studies.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26723238
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Gene 74 (1988), S. 123-128 
    ISSN: 0378-1119
    Keywords: Antiserum ; erythroleukaemia cells ; frog ; mouse ; specificity
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0940
    Keywords: 41A05 ; 41A63 ; Conditionally negative definite ; Completely monotone ; Radial ; Interpolation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract Motivated by the problem of multivariate scattered data interpolation, much interest has centered on interpolation by functions of the form $$f(x) = \sum\limits_{j = 1}^N {a_j g(\parallel x - x_j \parallel ),x \in R^s }$$ whereg:R + →R is some prescribed function. For a wide range of functionsg, it is known that the interpolation matricesA=g(∥x i −x j ∥) i,j=1 N are invertible for given distinct data pointsx 1,x 2,...,x N. More recently, progress has been made in quantifying these interpolation methods, in the sense of estimating the (l 2) norms of the inverses of these interpolation matrices as well as their condition numbers. In particular, given a suitable functiong:R + →R, and data inR s having minimal separationq, there exists a functionh s:R + →R +, which depends only ong ands, and a constantC s , which depends only ons, such that the inverse of the associated interpolation matrixA satisfies the estimate ‖A −1‖≤C s h s (q). The present paper seeks “converse” results to the inequality given above. That is, given a suitable functiong, a spatial dimensions, and a parameterq〉0 (which is usually assumed to be small), it is shown that there exists a data set inR s having minimal separationq, a constant $$\tilde C_s$$ depending only ons, and a functionk s (q), such that the inverse of the interpolation matrixA associated with this data set satisfies $$\parallel A^{ - 1} \parallel \geqslant \tilde C_s k_s (q)$$ . In some cases, it is seen thath s(q)=k s (q), so the bounds are optimal up to constants. In certain others,k s (q) is less thanh s (q), but nevertheless exhibits a behavior comparable to that ofh s (q). That is, even in these cases, the bounds are close to being optimal.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2250
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The Karhunen—Loève procedure is used to analyze two turbulent channel flow simulations. In both instances this reveals the presence of propagating plane wave structures in the turbulent flows. These waves appear to play an essential role in the local production of turbulence via bursting or sweeping events. The envelope of the propagating modes propagates with a speed which is equal to the mean velocity at the locus of maximal average Reynolds stress. Despite marked differences between the two flows similar results are obtained from each simulation. This is suggestive of the existence of universal or near universal features in the turbulent boundary layer. An analogy with critical layer mechanisms of transitional flows is discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Geometric and functional analysis 2 (1992), S. 137-172 
    ISSN: 1420-8970
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract it is shown that a version of Maurey's extension theorem holds for Lipschitz maps between metric spaces satisfying certain geometric conditions, analogous to type and cotype. As a consequence, a classical Theorem of Kirszbraun can be generalised to include maps intoL p , 1〈p〈2. These conditions describe the wandering of symmetric Markov processes in the spaces in question. Estimates are obtained for the root-mean-square wandering of such processes in theL p spaces. The duality theory for these geometric conditions (in normed spaces) is shown to be closely related to the behavior of the Riesz transforms associated to Markov chains. Several natural open problems are collected in the final chapter.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0093-691X
    Keywords: GnRH infusion ; anestrous ewes
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0093-691X
    Keywords: GnRH infusion ; anestrous ewes
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Cigarette smoking ; Nicotine ; Stopping smoking
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Two hundred and ten subjects entered a trial to test the use of a chewing gum containing nicotine as an aid to stopping smoking. They were divided into three groups: nicotine chewing gum, placebo chewing gum, and control. The trial was double blind between the two chewing gum groups. After 1 month the percentage of confirmed non-smokers in the nicotine gum group was 34%, in placebo chewing gum group 37% and the control group 24%. By 6 months most of the non-smokers had relapsed, but the nicotine gum group (23%) was more successful than the placebo (5% or the control group (14%).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Physics of Fluids 2 (1990), S. 2217-2226 
    ISSN: 1089-7666
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A direct simulation of turbulent flow in a channel is analyzed by the method of empirical eigenfunctions (Karhunen–Loève procedure, proper orthogonal decomposition). This analysis reveals the presence of propagating plane waves in the turbulent flow. The velocity of propagation is determined by the flow velocity at the location of maximal Reynolds stress. The analysis further suggests that the interaction of these waves appears to be essential to the local production of turbulence via bursting or sweeping events in the turbulent boundary layer, with the additional suggestion that the fast acting plane waves act as triggers.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Physics of Fluids 1 (1989), S. 1502-1507 
    ISSN: 1089-7666
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A flow visualization study, using smoke injected into the annular gap between concentric vertical cylinders, has been completed to determine the effects of buoyancy on the development and structure of Taylor vortices. The experimental facility consists of a heated, rotating inner cylinder enclosed by a transparent, stationary outer cylinder. Stationary horizontal endplates are used to seal the annulus. The axisymmetric Taylor vortex flow becomes distorted as buoyancy is introduced into the system. With increasing buoyancy, the flow undergoes a transition to a spiral form, after which another axisymmetric cellular pattern emerges. Finally, the natural convection flow pattern is established.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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