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  • 1
    ISSN: 0300-9084
    Keywords: cell growth ; protein synthesis ; sparsomycin ; structural modifications
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Yeast ; Chromosome mapping ; Acidic ribosomal proteins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary DNA probes from the genes encoding the acidic ribosomal proteins L44, L44′ and L45, as well as from reporter genes for chromosomes IV, VII, XII and XV, have been hybridised to Southern blots of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA resolved by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. The protein L44′ and protein L45 genes have been found to hybridise to chromosome IV, identified by the CAT1 gene probe, while the protein L44 probe hybridises with a band containing chromosomes VII and XV, identified by the ATPase 1 and HIS3 genes respectively.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  In the present study, lectin-gold cytochemistry and antibodies against ZP2 and ZP3 glycoproteins were used to investigate the oligosaccharide content of mouse ovarian zona pellucida (ZP) during follicular development. The entire thickness of the ZP and several organelles of the oocyte (cortical granules, Golgi apparatus, and vesicular aggregates) were reactive to RCA-I, DSA, AAA, WGA, MAA, and LFA throughout follicular development. HPA labeling was not detected at the earliest stages of follicular folliculogenesis. HPA reactivity was first observed in the ZP, Golgi apparatus, and the vesicles of oocytes at the trilaminar primary follicle stage. HPA labeling in the ZP was always restricted to the inner region of the zona matrix. After neuraminidase treatment, HPA reacted with the entire ZP in ovarian follicles at different stages of development. Immunolabeling with specific antibodies showed that, although ZP2 and ZP3 glycoproteins were uniformly distributed in the zona matrix of ovarian oocytes, there was a progressive increase in thickness of the ZP in parallel with the proliferation of follicular cells. ZP3 glycoprotein was also localized to the Golgi apparatus and vesicular aggregate. The present results suggest: (1) a difference in composition of carbohydrate content between the inner and outer region of the fully developed ZP generated probably by a modification in the biosynthetic pathway of oligosaccharides in the oocyte during folliculogenesis, (2) that newly synthesized ZP glycoproteins displace previously synthesized ZP components in a direction toward the follicular cells and, therefore, no redistribution of the ZP matrix occurs during folliculogenesis, and (3) that the vesicular aggregates in the ooplasm constitute an intermediate step in the secretory pathway of ZP glycoproteins.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Gallbladder mucus is mainly composed of glycoproteins, which seem to play a critical role in cholesterol nucleation during gallstone formation. The biosynthetic pathway and sequential processing as well as the characterization of the oligosaccharide sidechains of human gallbladder secretory glycoproteins have not been completely defined. The aim of the present study is the subcellular characterization of the glycoproteins in the principal cells of human gallbladder. Principal cells of normal human gallbladder were studied by means of a variety of cytochemical techniques, including lectin histochemistry, enzyme and chemical treatments, immunocytochemistry and lectin-gold technology. Fucose, galactose, N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylgalactosamine and N-acetylneuraminic acid residues were detected in mucous granules, Golgi apparatus and apical membrane of principal cells. Mannose residues were only observed in dense bodies. Oligosaccharide side-chains of the glycoproteins contained in the biliary mucus are synthesized in the Golgi apparatus of the principal cells of the gallbladder epithelium and are also contained in the mucous granules of these cells. Terminal N-acetylneuraminic acid(α2-3)galactose(β1-3)N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylneuraminic acid(α2-3)galactose(β1-4)N-acetylglucosamine and galactose(β1-4)N-acetylglucosamine sequences are contained in the oligosaccharide chains of gallbladder mucus glycoproteins. The dense bodies detected in the cytoplasm of the principal cells contained N-linked glycoproteins. Mucin-type O-linked glycoproteins were the main components of the mucous granules although some N-linked chains were also detected.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to neurofilament proteins, neuron-specific enolase, glial fibrillary acidic protein and S-100 have been used to demonstrate nerves, ganglion cells and the supportive glial system of the innervation of various organs. The female genitalia, the urinary tract, the respiratory system, the pancreas, the heart and the skin of several mammalian species, including rat, mouse, guinea pig, cat, pig, monkey and man were fixed in parabenzoquinone and portions of each organ were snap frozen. Serial or free-floating thick cryostat sections were stained using indirect immunofluorescence and peroxidase anti-peroxidase immunocytochemistry. In addition, the newly described and highly sensitive immunogold-silver staining technique was used on Bouin's-fixed and wax-embedded tissues. Antibodies to neurofilament proteins seemed to react with neuronal structures in all the species studied. Alternately stained serial sections showed a similar distribution of neurofilament proteins and neuron-specific enolase-containing nerves. Neuron-specific enolase staining had a diffuse appearance and was found to be highly variable, indicating that the neuron-specific enolase content might be related to the physiological state of the nerves and ganglion cells, whereas antibodies to neurofilament protein gave a consistently intense and very clear picture of the ganglion cells and nerve fibres. Antibodies to S-100 stained supportive elements of the peripheral nervous system in all tissues examined, whereas antibodies to glial fibrillary acidic protein were more selective.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The distribution and concentrations of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in kidneys, renal arteries, heart, aorta, mesenteric artery and adrenal glands from aorta-ligated hypertensive rats were studied by immunocytochemistry and radioimmunoassay. Immunocytochemistry showed that in the hypertensive animals NPY-immunoreactive fibres were decreased in both kidney and renal artery, above and below the ligation, and in mesenteric arteries. The depletion of NPY-containing nerves in the kidney was more pronounced around the juxtaglomerular apparatus than in other areas of the organ. By radioimmunoassay, the concentrations of NPY immunoreactivity were significantly lower in the hypertensive animals when compared with the controls, (kidney: hypertensive 1.0±0.1; controls 2.0±0.2 pmol/g, mean±SEM; p〈0.05 renal artery: hypertensive 5.0±0.8; controls 12.1±2.0; p〈0.05 and mesenteric artery: hypertensive 8.6±1.9; 17.6±3.0; p〈0.01). While there were no statistically significant changes in the levels of NPY immunoreactivity in the other areas studied, there was a general trend for the level to fall in the renal artery below the ligation (hypertensive 10.6±1.5; control 15.3±2.4; p〉0.05). It is of interest that changes were observed in the vasoconstrictor peptide NPY in this commonly used model of hypertension.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A battery of seven lectins and several conventional mucin histochemical techniques were used to identify the epithelial mucins of the gallbladder of ten species: man, rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus, mammalia), hamster (Mesocricetus auratus, mammalia), chicken (Gallus gallus, bird), sparrow (Passer domesticus, bird), moorish gecko (Tarentola mauritanica, reptilia), ladder snake (Elaphe scalaris, reptilia), lake frog (Rana perezi, amphibia), natterjack toad (Bufo calamita, amphibia) and gilthead sea bream (Sparus auratus, fish). Glycogen was found in the epithelial lining of the reptilian and amphibian gallbladders. Sulphate and carboxyl groups were frequently found in the same species, except in the ladder snake and natterjack toad gallbladders where only sulphate groups were identified. Sialic acid residues were detected in man, rabbit, bird, T. mauritanica, R. perezi and fish gallbladders. ConA binding pattern was similar in the ten species studied. In the human gallbladder only PNA failed to label the luminal surface, while the glands were only unreactive to DBA. The human gallbladder showed a large variety of saccharides. The present results suggest that no relation exists between the composition of the gallbladder mucins and the situation of the species in the phylogenetic scale.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The glycoconjugates of the human fundic mucosa were characterized at the ultrastructural level by means of direct (Helix pomatia agglutinin-gold complex) and indirect lectin techniques (Concanavalin A and horseradish peroxidase-gold complex; wheat germ agglutinin and ovomucoid-gold complex). Surface mucous cells and mucous neck cells secreted O-glycoproteins with N-acetylgalactosamine and N-acetylglucosamine residues at the non reducing terminus of the saccharidic chain. The secretory granules of the mucous neck cells showed condensed areas slightly reactive to ConA. The results obtained in the chief cells suggest that these cells secrete N-glycoproteins rich in mannose and/or glucose residues. “Transitional cells”, presenting both morphological characteristics and lectin binding pattern intermediate to the mucous neck and chief cells have been observed. The surface of the intracellular canaliculi of the parietal cell was labelled by HPA, WGA and ConA. In the neck region of the gastric glands, immature parietal cells containing abundant mucous granules reactive to HPA, WGA and ConA were observed. The present results further corroborate the existence of a common cell precursor for surface mucous, mucous neck and parietal cells. In a further step, mucous neck cells gradually differentiate into chief cells the transitional cells being an intermediate stage.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The glycoconjugates of the respiratory system of rats from 15 days of gestation through the adult period have been characterized by means of both conventional and lectin histochemistry. The main changes occurred at 20–21 days of gestation immediately before birth. An increase of acidic groups in the glycoproteins of the lung and airway epithelium was observed by conventional mucin histochemistry. The combined use of neuraminidase digestion and lectin histochemistry demonstrated an increase of sialic acid residues at the terminal position of the glucidic moieties of the glycoproteins. The sialic acid residues were linked α (2–3, 6) to d-galactose (β1–3)-N-acetylgalactosamine, thus masking the PNA-reactivity detected on the luminal surface of Clara cells and pneumonocytes before birth. In the adult period, α-l-fucose residues, detected by UEA-I, were localized in the glycoproteins contained in goblet cells and periciliary layer of the rat airway epithelium. The modifications observed in the lung of developing rats are similar to those previously described in human fetal and neonatal lungs. This suggests that the rat represents a useful model to study the glycoprotein synthesis during lung development.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The composition and distribution of rat acrosomal glycoproteins during spermiogenesis have been investigated at light and electron microscopic level by means of a variety of morphological techniques including the application of lectins conjugated to peroxidase, digoxigenin and colloidal gold, enzyme and chemical deglycosylation procedures and conventional histochemistry. Results obtained with lectin histochemistry in combination with β-elimination reaction and endoglucosaminidase F/peptide N-glycosidase F digestion suggest that glycoproteins of mature acrosomes contain both N- and O-linked oligosaccharides. N-linked chains of acrosomal glycoproteins contain mannose and external residues of N-acetylglucosamine and galactose. They also have fucose residues linked to the core region of the oligosaccharide side chains. O-linked oligosaccharide chains contain external residues of both galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine. Mannose, fucose, galactose and N-acetylglucosamine residues were detected in acrosomes at all steps of spermiogenesis. N-acetylgalactosamine residues were only observed in the late steps of the spermiogenesis. N-acetylneuraminic acid residues were not detected throughout the acrosomal development. At initial stages of acrosome formation, glycoproteins were preferentially distributed over the acrosomic granules. In cap phase spermatids, lectin binding sites were homogeneously distributed throughout the acrosomes; however, in mature spermatozoa, glycoproteins were predominantly located over the outer acrosomal membrane.
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