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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The xcp genes are required for the secretion of most extracellular proteins by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The products of these genes are essential for the transport of exoproteins across the outer membrane after they have reached the periptasm via a signal sequence-dependent pathway. To date, analysis of three xcp genes has suggested the conservation of this secretion pathway in many Gram-negative bacteria. Furthermore, the xcpA gene was shown to be identical to pilD, which encodes a peptidase involved in the processing of fimbrial (pili) subunits, suggesting a connection between pili biogenesis and protein secretion. Here the nucleotide sequences of seven other xcp genes, designated xcpR to -X, are presented. The N termini of four of the encoded Xcp proteins display similarity to the N-termini of type IV pili, suggesting that XcpA is involved in the processing of these Xcp proteins. This could indeed be demonstrated in vivo. Furthermore, two other proteins, XcpR and XcpS, show similarity to the PilB and PilC proteins required for fimbriae assembly. Since XcpR and PilB display a canonical nucleotide-binding site, ATP hydrolysis may provide energy for both systems.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The pepN gene, that encodes aminopeptidase N in Escherichia coli, has been cloned into the multicopy plasmid pBR322. Expression of the cloned pepN gene results in overproduction of the enzyme. The restriction map of the 6.7 Kb insert was established and the gene was further localized by analysis of the in vitro constructed deletion plasmid and mutant plasmids generated by Tn5 insertions. Chromosome mobilization experiments, using pepN-lac fusion strains allowed us to infer a clockwise direction of transcription for the pepN gene.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    FEMS microbiology letters 103 (1992), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa secretes many proteins into the extracellular medium. At least two distinct secretion pathways can be discerned. The majority of the exoproteins are secreted via a two-step mechanism. These proteins are first translocated across the inner membrane in a signal sequence-dependent fashion. The subsequent translocation across the outer membrane requires the products of at least 12 distinct xcp genes. The exact role of one of these proteins, the XcpA protein, has been resolved. It is a peptidase that is required for the processing of the precursors of four other Xcp proteins, thus allowing their assembly into the secretion apparatus. This peptidase is also required for the processing of the precursors of type IV pili subunits. Two other Xcp proteins, XcpR and XcpS, display extensive homology to proteins involved in pili biogenesis, which suggests that the assembly of the secretion apparatus and the biogenesis of type IV pili are related processes. The secretion of alkaline protease does not require the xcp gene products. This enzyme, which is encoded by the aprA gene, is not synthesized in a precursor form with an N-terminal signal sequence. Secretion across the two membranes probably takes place in one step at adhesion zones that may be constituted by three accessory proteins, designated AprD, AprE and AprF. The two secretion pathways found in P. aeruginosa appear to habe disseminate widely among Gram-negative bacteria.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The virulence of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is largely dependent upon the extracellular production of a number of secreted proteins with toxic or degradative activities. The synthesis of several exoenzymes is controlled in a cell-density-dependent manner by two interlinked quorum-sensing systems. Their secretion across the outer membrane occurs through the Xcp translocation machinery. The xcp locus located at 40 min on the chromosome consists of two divergently transcribed operons, namely xcpPQ and xcpR to xcpZ. In this study, transcriptional fusions were constructed between the xcpP and xcpR genes and the lacZ reporter. Transcriptional activation of the xcpP and xcpR genes in P. aeruginosa is growth-phase dependent and the lasR–lasI autoinduction system is required for this control. In the heterologous host Escherichia coli, the lasR gene product, together with its cognate autoinducer N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (OdDHL), activates both the xcpP–lacZ and the xcpR–lacZ gene fusion. The second P. aeruginosa quorum-sensing modulon rhlR–rhlI (vsmR–vsmI ) is also involved in the control of the xcp genes. Expression of the lacZ fusions is strongly reduced in PANO67, a pleiotropic mutant defective in the production of N-acyl-homoserine lactones responsible for the activation of RhlR. Furthermore, introduction of the lasR mutation in PANO67 results in additional diminution of xcpR transcription, indicating that the two systems can regulate their target genes independently. These data demonstrate that expression of the xcp secretion system depends on a complex regulatory network involving cell–cell signalling which controls production and secretion of virulence-associated factors.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1574-6976
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Bacteria have evolved several secretory pathways to release proteins into the extracellular medium. In Gram-negative bacteria, the exoproteins cross a cell envelope composed of two successive hydrophobic barriers, the cytoplasmic and outer membranes. In some cases, the protein is translocated in a single step across the cell envelope, directly from the cytoplasm to the extracellular medium. In other cases, outer membrane translocation involves an extension of the signal peptide-dependent pathway for translocation across the cytoplasmic membrane via the Sec machinery. By analogy with the so-called general export pathway (GEP), this latter route, including two separate steps across the inner and the outer membrane, was designated as the general secretory pathway (GSP) and is widely conserved among Gram-negative bacteria. In their great majority, exoproteins use the main terminal branch (MTB) of the GSP, namely the Xcp machinery in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, to reach the extracellular medium. In this review, we will use the P. aeruginosa Xcp system as a basis to discuss multiple aspects of the GSP mechanism, including machinery assembly, exoprotein recognition, energy requirement and pore formation for driving through the outer membrane.
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