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  • 1
    Keywords: carcinoma ; MODELS ; POPULATION ; VARIANTS ; BREAST-CANCER ; TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS ; PROFILES ; SET ; susceptibility loci ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have so far reported 12 loci associated with serous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk. We hypothesized that some of these loci function through nearby transcription factor (TF) genes and that putative target genes of these TFs as identified by co-expression may also be enriched for additional EOC risk associations. METHODS: We selected TF genes within 1 Mb of the top signal at the 12 genome-wide significant risk loci. Mutual information, a form of correlation, was used to build networks of genes strongly co-expressed with each selected TF gene in the unified microarray data set of 489 serous EOC tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Genes represented in this data set were subsequently ranked using a gene-level test based on results for germline SNPs from a serous EOC GWAS meta-analysis (2,196 cases/4,396 controls). RESULTS: Gene set enrichment analysis identified six networks centered on TF genes (HOXB2, HOXB5, HOXB6, HOXB7 at 17q21.32 and HOXD1, HOXD3 at 2q31) that were significantly enriched for genes from the risk-associated end of the ranked list (P〈0.05 and FDR〈0.05). These results were replicated (P〈0.05) using an independent association study (7,035 cases/21,693 controls). Genes underlying enrichment in the six networks were pooled into a combined network. CONCLUSION: We identified a HOX-centric network associated with serous EOC risk containing several genes with known or emerging roles in serous EOC development. IMPACT: Network analysis integrating large, context-specific data sets has the potential to offer mechanistic insights into cancer susceptibility and prioritize genes for experimental characterization.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26209509
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  • 2
    Abstract: Breast cancer is the most diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer mortality in females. Previous association studies have identified variants on 2q35 associated with the risk of breast cancer. To identify functional susceptibility loci for breast cancer, we interrogated the 2q35 gene desert for chromatin architecture and functional variation correlated with gene expression. We report a novel intergenic breast cancer risk locus containing an enhancer copy number variation (enCNV; deletion) located approximately 400Kb upstream to IGFBP5, which overlaps an intergenic ERalpha-bound enhancer that loops to the IGFBP5 promoter. The enCNV is correlated with modified ERalpha binding and monoallelic-repression of IGFBP5 following estrogen treatment. We investigated the association of enCNV genotype with breast cancer in 1,182 cases and 1,362 controls, and replicate our findings in an independent set of 62,533 cases and 60,966 controls from 41 case control studies and 11 GWAS. We report a dose-dependent inverse association of 2q35 enCNV genotype (percopy OR=0.68 95%CI 0.55-0.83, P=0.0002; replication OR=0.77 95%CI 0.73-0.82, P=2.1x10-19) and identify 13 additional linked variants (r2〉0.8) in the 20Kb linkage block containing the enCNV (P=3.2x10-15 - 5.6x10-17). These associations were independent of previously reported 2q35 variants, rs13387042/rs4442975 and rs16857609, and were stronger for ER-positive than ER-negative disease. Together, these results suggest that 2q35 breast cancer risk loci may be mediating their effect through IGFBP5.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27402876
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 64 (1978), S. 67-72 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The possible role of fungi as allergic contaminants in book collections has been investigated in eleven University of Michigan Libraries. Air in the stacks of each of the eleven libraries was sampled on three occasions (2 or 4–10 minute samples on each occasion) with Andersen Volumetric viable particle samplers. Books were handled during sampling in half the samples each day. In addition on each sampling day a location in the same building away from book storage and an outdoor location were sampled. Library spore levels were generally low. Outdoor levels consistently exceeded indoor levels. Air conditioned (AC) libraries had lower spore levels and indoor/outdoor ratios than conventionally ventilated (CV) libraries. Handling books during sampling increased spore counts in all libraries, but strikingly in CV libraries. Fungus taxa recovered were similar to those encountered in domestic interiors and outside locations in our area. The overall low spore levels and lack of a distinctive library mycoflora suggest that other sources should be sought for librarybased respiratory symptoms. The occurrence of rhinitis or asthma provoked by exposure to libraries and other book collections is well documented (1). While variously ascribed to house dust, arthropods and bindery glues, this symptom pattern generally defies explanation. In this climate of uncertainty, the possible role of fungi as allergenic contaminants of book collections arises naturally for consideration. Among enclosed spaces libraries offer unique substrate characteristics while generally excluding factors (e.g., animal danders and food fragments) present in domestic dusts. Faced with patients describing respiratory symptoms with library use, we have initiated study of the mycoflora of these specialized interiors.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-06-02
    Description: Background: Higher sugar consumption may increase cancer risk by promoting insulin-glucose dysregulation, oxidative stress, hormonal imbalances, and excess adiposity. This prospective study investigates the association between dietary sugars (fructose and sucrose) and sugary foods and beverages in relation to combined and site-specific (breast, prostate, colorectal) adiposity-associated cancers. Methods: The analytic sample consisted of 3,184 adults, aged 26–84 years, from the Framingham Offspring cohort. Diet data were first collected between 1991 and 1995 using a food frequency questionnaire. Intakes of fructose, sucrose, sugary foods, and sugary beverages (fruit juice and sugar-sweetened beverages) were derived. Participants were followed up until 2013 to ascertain cancer incidence; 565 doctor-diagnosed adiposity-related cancers, including 124 breast, 157 prostate, and 68 colorectal cancers occurred. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate associations. Tests for interaction with BMI and waist circumference were conducted. Results: No associations were observed between fructose, sucrose, sugary food consumption, and combined incidence of adiposity-related cancers or the examined site-specific cancers. While total consumption of sugary beverages was not associated with site-specific cancer risk, higher intakes of fruit juice were associated with 58% increased prostate cancer risk (HR: 1.58; 95% CI, 1.04–2.41) in multivariable-adjusted models. In exploratory stratified analyses, higher sugary beverage intakes increased overall adiposity-related cancer risk by 59% in participants with excessive central adiposity (HR: 1.59; 95% CI, 1.01–2.50; P trend = 0.057). Conclusions: In this cohort of American adults, higher sugary beverage consumption was associated with increased cancer risk among participants with central adiposity. Impact: These analyses suggest that avoiding sugary beverages represents a simple dietary modification that may be used as an effective cancer control strategy. Cancer Prev Res; 11(6); 347–58. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1940-6207
    Electronic ISSN: 1940-6215
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-02-10
    Description: Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and one of its distinguishing characteristics, oligomenorrhea, have both been associated with ovarian cancer risk in some but not all studies. However, these associations have been rarely examined by ovarian cancer histotypes, which may explain the lack of clear associations reported in previous studies. Methods: We analyzed data from 14 case–control studies including 16,594 women with invasive ovarian cancer ( n = 13,719) or borderline ovarian disease ( n = 2,875) and 17,718 controls. Adjusted study-specific ORs were calculated using logistic regression and combined using random-effects meta-analysis. Pooled histotype-specific ORs were calculated using polytomous logistic regression. Results: Women reporting menstrual cycle length 〉35 days had decreased risk of invasive ovarian cancer compared with women reporting cycle length ≤35 days [OR = 0.70; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.58–0.84]. Decreased risk of invasive ovarian cancer was also observed among women who reported irregular menstrual cycles compared with women with regular cycles (OR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.76–0.89). No significant association was observed between self-reported PCOS and invasive ovarian cancer risk (OR = 0.87; 95% CI = 0.65–1.15). There was a decreased risk of all individual invasive histotypes for women with menstrual cycle length 〉35 days, but no association with serous borderline tumors ( P heterogeneity = 0.006). Similarly, we observed decreased risks of most invasive histotypes among women with irregular cycles, but an increased risk of borderline serous and mucinous tumors ( P heterogeneity 〈 0.0001). Conclusions: Our results suggest that menstrual cycle characteristics influence ovarian cancer risk differentially based on histotype. Impact: These results highlight the importance of examining ovarian cancer risk factors associations by histologic subtype. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(2); 174–82. ©2017 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1055-9965
    Electronic ISSN: 1538-7755
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Background: Constitutional immunity shaped by exposure to endemic infectious diseases and parasitic worms in Sub-Saharan Africa may play a role in the etiology of breast cancer among African American (AA) women. Methods: A total of 149,514 gene variants in 433 genes across 45 immune pathways were analyzed in the AMBER consortium among 3,663 breast cancer cases and 4,687 controls. Gene-based pathway analyses were conducted using the adaptive rank truncated product statistic for overall breast cancer risk, and risk by estrogen receptor (ER) status. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for single variants. Results: The top pathways were Interleukin binding ( P = 0.01), Biocarta TNFR2 ( P = 0.005), and positive regulation of cytokine production ( P = 0.024) for overall, ER + , and ER – cancers, respectively. The most significant gene was IL2RB ( P = 0.001) for overall cancer, with rs228952 being the top variant identified (OR = 0.85; 95% CI, 0.79–0.92). Only BCL3 contained a significant variant for ER + breast cancer. Variants in IL2RB, TLR6, IL8, PRKDC , and MAP3K1 were associated with ER – disease. The only genes showing heterogeneity between ER – and ER + cancers were TRAF1, MAP3K1 , and MAPK3 ( P ≤ 0.02). We also noted genes associated with autoimmune and atopic disorders. Conclusions: Findings from this study suggest that genetic variants in immune pathways are relevant to breast cancer susceptibility among AA women, both for ER + and ER – breast cancers. Impact: Results from this study extend our understanding of how inherited genetic variation in immune pathways is relevant to breast cancer susceptibility. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(3); 321–30. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1055-9965
    Electronic ISSN: 1538-7755
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 7
    Keywords: ASSOCIATION ; POLYMORPHISMS ; VARIANTS ; IDENTIFICATION ; METAANALYSIS ; LOCUS
    Abstract: The presence of regulatory T cells (Treg) in solid tumors is known to play a role in patient survival in ovarian cancer and other malignancies. We assessed inherited genetic variations via 749 tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 25 Treg-associated genes (CD28, CTLA4, FOXP3, IDO1, IL10, IL10RA, IL15, 1L17RA, IL23A, IL23R, IL2RA, IL6, IL6R, IL8, LGALS1, LGALS9, MAP3K8, STAT5A, STAT5B, TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFB3, TGFBR1, TGRBR2, and TGFBR3) in relation to ovarian cancer survival. We analyzed genotype and overall survival in 10,084 women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer, including 5,248 high-grade serous, 1,452 endometrioid, 795 clear cell, and 661 mucinous carcinoma cases of European descent across 28 studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). The strongest associations were found for endometrioid carcinoma and IL2RA SNPs rs11256497 [HR, 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.22-1.64; P = 5.7 x 10(-6)], rs791587 (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.17-1.57; P = 6.2 x 10(-5)), rs2476491 (HR, = 1.40; 95% CI, 1.19-1.64; P = 5.6 x 10(-5)), and rs10795763 (HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.17-1.57; P = 7.9 x 10(-5)), and for clear cell carcinoma and CTLA4 SNP rs231775 (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.54-0.82; P = 9.3 x 10(-5)) after adjustment for age, study site, population stratification, stage, grade, and oral contraceptive use. The rs231775 allele associated with improved survival in our study also results in an amino acid change in CTLA4 and previously has been reported to be associated with autoimmune conditions. Thus, we found evidence that SNPs in genes related to Tregs seem to play a role in ovarian cancer survival, particularly in patients with clear cell and endometrioid epithelial ovarian cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24764580
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