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  • 1
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; SACCHAROMYCES-CEREVISIAE ; METABOLISM ; ACTIVATED PROTEIN-KINASE ; PHOSPHORYLATION ; YEAST ; ENDOPLASMIC-RETICULUM ; P-BODIES ; LOW-TEMPERATURE ; MAMMALIAN HIBERNATION
    Abstract: Cells respond to different types of stress by inhibition of protein synthesis and subsequent assembly of stress granules (SGs), cytoplasmic aggregates that contain stalled translation preinitiation complexes. Global translation is regulated through the translation initiation factor eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2 alpha) and the mTOR pathway. Here we identify cold shock as a novel trigger of SG assembly in yeast and mammals. Whereas cold shock-induced SGs take hours to form, they dissolve within minutes when cells are returned to optimal growth temperatures. Cold shock causes eIF2 alpha phosphorylation through the kinase PERK in mammalian cells, yet this pathway is not alone responsible for translation arrest and SG formation. In addition, cold shock leads to reduced mitochondrial function, energy depletion, concomitant activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and inhibition of mTOR signaling. Compound C, a pharmacological inhibitor of AMPK, prevents the formation of SGs and strongly reduces cellular survival in a translation-dependent manner. Our results demonstrate that cells actively suppress protein synthesis by parallel pathways, which induce SG formation and ensure cellular survival during hypothermia.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22875991
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  • 2
    Keywords: TRANSPORT ; BEHAVIOR ; BINDING PROTEIN ; GUIDANCE ; CELL CORTEX ; PLUS ENDS ; GROWING NERVE PROCESSES ; NEURONAL GROWTH CONES ; DYNAMIC MICROTUBULES ; ACTIN-FILAMENTS
    Abstract: Dynamic microtubules (MTs) are required for neuronal guidance, in which axons extend directionally toward their target tissues. We found that depletion of the MT-binding protein Xenopus cytoplasmic linker-associated protein 1 (XCLASP1) or treatment with the MT drug Taxol reduced axon outgrowth in spinal cord neurons. To quantify the dynamic distribution of MTs in axons, we developed an automated algorithm to detect and track MT plus ends that have been fluorescently labeled by end-binding protein 3 (EB3). XCLASP1 depletion reduced MT advance rates in neuronal growth cones, very much like treatment with Taxol, demonstrating a potential link between MT dynamics in the growth cone and axon extension. Automatic tracking of EB3 comets in different compartments revealed that MTs increasingly slowed as they passed from the axon shaft into the growth cone and filopodia. We used speckle microscopy to demonstrate that MTs experience retrograde flow at the leading edge. Microtubule advance in growth cone and filopodia was strongly reduced in XCLASP1-depleted axons as compared with control axons, but actin retrograde flow remained unchanged. Instead, we found that XCLASP1-depleted growth cones lacked lamellipodial actin organization characteristic of protrusion. Lamellipodial architecture depended on XCLASP1 and its capacity to associate with MTs, highlighting the importance of XCLASP1 in actin-microtubule interactions.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23515224
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  • 3
    Keywords: INFECTION ; INDUCTION ; CELL-DEATH ; FUSION ; innate immunity ; FLOW-CYTOMETRY ; HEPATITIS-C VIRUS ; unfolded protein response ; MACHINERY ; MACROAUTOPHAGY
    Abstract: Autophagic flux involves formation of autophagosomes and their degradation by lysosomes. Autophagy can either promote or restrict viral replication. In the case of Dengue virus (DENV) several studies report that autophagy supports the viral replication cycle, and describe an increase of autophagic vesicles (AVs) following infection. However, it is unknown how autophagic flux is altered to result in increased AVs. To address this question, and gain insight into the role of autophagy during DENV infection, we established an unbiased, image-based flow cytometry approach to quantify autophagic flux under normal growth conditions and in response to activation by nutrient deprivation or the mTOR inhibitor Torin1. We found that DENV induced an initial activation of autophagic flux, followed by inhibition of general and specific autophagy. Early after infection, basal and activated autophagic flux was enhanced. However, during established replication, basal and Torin1-activated autophagic flux was blocked, while autophagic flux activated by nutrient deprivation was reduced, indicating a block to AV formation and reduced AV degradation capacity. During late infection AV levels increased as a result of inefficient fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes. Additionally, endo-lysosomal trafficking was suppressed, while lysosomal activities were increased. We further determined that DENV infection progressively reduced levels of the autophagy receptor SQSTM1/p62 via proteasomal degradation. Importantly, stable over-expression of p62 significantly suppressed DENV replication suggesting a novel role for p62 as viral restriction factor. Overall our findings indicate that in the course of DENV infection, autophagy shifts from a supporting to an anti-viral role, which is countered by DENV. IMPORTANCE: Autophagic flux is a dynamic process starting with the formation of autophagosomes and ending with their degradation after fusion with lysosomes. Autophagy impacts the replication cycle of many viruses. However, thus far the dynamics of autophagy in case of Dengue virus (DENV) infections has not been systematically quantified. Therefore, we employed high-content, imaging-based flow cytometry to quantify autophagic flux and endo-lysosomal trafficking in response to DENV infection. We report that DENV induced an initial activation of autophagic flux, followed by inhibition of general and specific autophagy. Further, lysosomal activity was increased, but endo-lysosomal trafficking was suppressed confirming the block of autophagic flux. Importantly, we provide evidence that p62, an autophagy receptor, restrict DENV replication and was specifically depleted in DENV-infected cells via increased proteasomal degradation. These results suggest that during DENV infection autophagy shifts from a pro- to an antiviral cellular process, which is counteracted by the virus.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26018155
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  • 4
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; INHIBITION ; ACTIVATED PROTEIN-KINASE ; INTERFERON ; BODY ; HEPATITIS-C VIRUS ; HUMAN-CELLS ; P-BODIES ; ER STRESS ; GADD34
    Abstract: Virus infection-induced global protein synthesis suppression is linked to assembly of stress granules (SGs), cytosolic aggregates of stalled translation preinitiation complexes. To study long-term stress responses, we developed an imaging approach for extended observation and analysis of SG dynamics during persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. In combination with type 1 interferon, HCV infection induces highly dynamic assembly/disassembly of cytoplasmic SGs, concomitant with phases of active and stalled translation, delayed cell division, and prolonged cell survival. Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), independent of viral replication, is sufficient to trigger these oscillations. Translation initiation factor eIF2alpha phosphorylation by protein kinase R mediates SG formation and translation arrest. This is antagonized by the upregulation of GADD34, the regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 1 dephosphorylating eIF2alpha. Stress response oscillation is a general mechanism to prevent long-lasting translation repression and a conserved host cell reaction to multiple RNA viruses, which HCV may exploit to establish persistence.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22817989
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