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  • 1
    Keywords: THERAPY ; HEALTH ; WOMEN
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Half the epidemiological studies with information about menopausal hormone therapy and ovarian cancer risk remain unpublished, and some retrospective studies could have been biased by selective participation or recall. We aimed to assess with minimal bias the effects of hormone therapy on ovarian cancer risk. METHODS: Individual participant datasets from 52 epidemiological studies were analysed centrally. The principal analyses involved the prospective studies (with last hormone therapy use extrapolated forwards for up to 4 years). Sensitivity analyses included the retrospective studies. Adjusted Poisson regressions yielded relative risks (RRs) versus never-use. FINDINGS: During prospective follow-up, 12 110 postmenopausal women, 55% (6601) of whom had used hormone therapy, developed ovarian cancer. Among women last recorded as current users, risk was increased even with 〈5 years of use (RR 1.43, 95% CI 1.31-1.56; p〈0.0001). Combining current-or-recent use (any duration, but stopped 〈5 years before diagnosis) resulted in an RR of 1.37 (95% CI 1.29-1.46; p〈0.0001); this risk was similar in European and American prospective studies and for oestrogen-only and oestrogen-progestagen preparations, but differed across the four main tumour types (heterogeneity p〈0.0001), being definitely increased only for the two most common types, serous (RR 1.53, 95% CI 1.40-1.66; p〈0.0001) and endometrioid (1.42, 1.20-1.67; p〈0.0001). Risk declined the longer ago use had ceased, although about 10 years after stopping long-duration hormone therapy use there was still an excess of serous or endometrioid tumours (RR 1.25, 95% CI 1.07-1.46, p=0.005). INTERPRETATION: The increased risk may well be largely or wholly causal; if it is, women who use hormone therapy for 5 years from around age 50 years have about one extra ovarian cancer per 1000 users and, if its prognosis is typical, about one extra ovarian cancer death per 1700 users. FUNDING: Medical Research Council, Cancer Research UK.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25684585
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  • 2
    Abstract: Sun exposure is the main cause of squamous (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) although pattern and amount differ by cancer type, and sun sensitivity is the major host risk factor. Our study investigated risk factors and residential ambient UV in a population-based sample of Australian 45 and Up Study participants: 916 BCC cases, 433 SCC cases, 1224 controls. Unconditional logistic regression models adjusting for key covariates demonstrated 60% increased BCC risk and 2-fold increased SCC risk with sun sensitivity, and 3- and 4-fold increased risk respectively with solar keratoses. BCC but not SCC risk increased with higher early-life residential UV in all participants (odds ratio (OR) = 1.54; 95%CI 1.22-1.96 for intermediate; OR = 1.31; 95%CI 1.03-1.68 for high UV at birthplace) and similarly in Australian-born participants (P-values〈0.05). Risk of SCC but not BCC increased with long-term cumulative sun exposure assessed by self-reported outdoor work (OR 1.74, 95%CI 1.21-2.49). In conclusion, sun sensitivity is important for both cancers, early life UV but not cumulative UV appears to increase BCC risk, the former an apparently novel finding, and SCC risk appears only to be related to long-term cumulative sun exposure. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28710897
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  • 3
    Abstract: Background: Serologic testing for antibodies against epitopes from pathogens is a valuable tool for investigating the relationship between infection and disease. This study comprehensively evaluates the impact of preanalytic variation on antibody seropositivities to a selected set of antigens arising from delays in processing of blood samples, preprocessing storage temperature, and vacutainer type.Methods: We assessed peripheral blood collected from 29 volunteers in four different Vacutainer types [ethylenediaminoetetraacetic acid (EDTA), acid-citrate-dextrose (ACD), lithium heparin (LH), serum separator tubes (SST)], and stored at 4 degrees C or room temperature for 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 days before processing. Multiplex serology was used to determine antibody reactivity against 35 antigens derived from human papillomaviruses, human polyomaviruses, Epstein-Barr virus, and Helicobacter pylori Cohen's kappa statistic was used to measure agreement on seropositivity status between samples exposed to standard and nonstandard clinical practice conditions.Results: For samples processed without delay, kappa was not associated with storage-temperature (P value range 0.23 to 0.95) or vacutainer type (P value range, 0.35-0.89). Kappa did not significantly decline with increasing delays in processing for any vacutainer-type storage temperature combination (P slope range, 0.06-1.00).Conclusions: Antibodies to epitopes from various pathogenic infectious agents can be measured reliably from samples stored in SST, EDTA, ACD, or LH vacutainers at either room temperature or 4 degrees C for up to 6 days before processing.Impact: Serologic testing is robust to several preanalytic options. These findings are particularly important for epidemiologic studies recruiting participants from remote settings where sample exposure to preanalytic conditions can vary considerably. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(8); 1337-44. (c)2017 AACR.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28483968
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  • 4
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Low-risk limits recommended for alcohol consumption vary substantially across different national guidelines. To define thresholds associated with lowest risk for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease, we studied individual-participant data from 599 912 current drinkers without previous cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We did a combined analysis of individual-participant data from three large-scale data sources in 19 high-income countries (the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration, EPIC-CVD, and the UK Biobank). We characterised dose-response associations and calculated hazard ratios (HRs) per 100 g per week of alcohol (12.5 units per week) across 83 prospective studies, adjusting at least for study or centre, age, sex, smoking, and diabetes. To be eligible for the analysis, participants had to have information recorded about their alcohol consumption amount and status (ie, non-drinker vs current drinker), plus age, sex, history of diabetes and smoking status, at least 1 year of follow-up after baseline, and no baseline history of cardiovascular disease. The main analyses focused on current drinkers, whose baseline alcohol consumption was categorised into eight predefined groups according to the amount in grams consumed per week. We assessed alcohol consumption in relation to all-cause mortality, total cardiovascular disease, and several cardiovascular disease subtypes. We corrected HRs for estimated long-term variability in alcohol consumption using 152 640 serial alcohol assessments obtained some years apart (median interval 5.6 years [5th-95th percentile 1.04-13.5]) from 71 011 participants from 37 studies. FINDINGS: In the 599 912 current drinkers included in the analysis, we recorded 40 310 deaths and 39 018 incident cardiovascular disease events during 5.4 million person-years of follow-up. For all-cause mortality, we recorded a positive and curvilinear association with the level of alcohol consumption, with the minimum mortality risk around or below 100 g per week. Alcohol consumption was roughly linearly associated with a higher risk of stroke (HR per 100 g per week higher consumption 1.14, 95% CI, 1.10-1.17), coronary disease excluding myocardial infarction (1.06, 1.00-1.11), heart failure (1.09, 1.03-1.15), fatal hypertensive disease (1.24, 1.15-1.33); and fatal aortic aneurysm (1.15, 1.03-1.28). By contrast, increased alcohol consumption was log-linearly associated with a lower risk of myocardial infarction (HR 0.94, 0.91-0.97). In comparison to those who reported drinking 〉0-〈/=100 g per week, those who reported drinking 〉100-〈/=200 g per week, 〉200-〈/=350 g per week, or 〉350 g per week had lower life expectancy at age 40 years of approximately 6 months, 1-2 years, or 4-5 years, respectively. INTERPRETATION: In current drinkers of alcohol in high-income countries, the threshold for lowest risk of all-cause mortality was about 100 g/week. For cardiovascular disease subtypes other than myocardial infarction, there were no clear risk thresholds below which lower alcohol consumption stopped being associated with lower disease risk. These data support limits for alcohol consumption that are lower than those recommended in most current guidelines. FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council, British Heart Foundation, National Institute for Health Research, European Union Framework 7, and European Research Council.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 29676281
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  • 5
  • 6
    Keywords: THERAPY ; PATIENT ; TRIALS ; AGE ; REPRODUCIBILITY ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; REQUIRING PROLONGED OBSERVATION ; RECALL ; COLLABORATIVE REANALYSIS ; SEX-HORMONES
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Menarche and menopause mark the onset and cessation, respectively, of ovarian activity associated with reproduction, and affect breast cancer risk. Our aim was to assess the strengths of their effects and determine whether they depend on characteristics of the tumours or the affected women. METHODS: Individual data from 117 epidemiological studies, including 118 964 women with invasive breast cancer and 306 091 without the disease, none of whom had used menopausal hormone therapy, were included in the analyses. We calculated adjusted relative risks (RRs) associated with menarche and menopause for breast cancer overall, and by tumour histology and by oestrogen receptor expression. FINDINGS: Breast cancer risk increased by a factor of 1.050 (95% CI 1.044-1.057; p〈0.0001) for every year younger at menarche, and independently by a smaller amount (1.029, 1.025-1.032; p〈0.0001), for every year older at menopause. Premenopausal women had a greater risk of breast cancer than postmenopausal women of an identical age (RR at age 45-54 years 1.43, 1.33-1.52, p〈0.001). All three of these associations were attenuated by increasing adiposity among postmenopausal women, but did not vary materially by women's year of birth, ethnic origin, childbearing history, smoking, alcohol consumption, or hormonal contraceptive use. All three associations were stronger for lobular than for ductal tumours (p〈0.006 for each comparison). The effect of menopause in women of an identical age and trends by age at menopause were stronger for oestrogen receptor-positive disease than for oestrogen receptor-negative disease (p〈0.01 for both comparisons). INTERPRETATION: The effects of menarche and menopause on breast cancer risk might not be acting merely by lengthening women's total number of reproductive years. Endogenous ovarian hormones are more relevant for oestrogen receptor-positive disease than for oestrogen receptor-negative disease and for lobular than for ductal tumours. FUNDING: Cancer Research UK.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23084519
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1434-3916
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A 61-year-old man with a slow-growing, painless mass in the area of the right knee underwent radiographic, computed tomographic (CT), arthrographic, arteriographic, and bone scintigraphic imaging studies. Scintigraphy showed an area of intense uptake in the anterolateral part of the knee; the uptake of the knee was much higher than that of the knee joints, but the area was not connected to the joint. Radiographic findings suggested an osteocartilaginous mass which was seen to contain low-density fatty tissue on the CT exam. Arthrography revealed that there was no connection of the mass to the knee joint. Arteriography showed a mildly vascularized tumor mass. Upon removal, the mass was well encapsulated, measuring 10 × 7 × 7 cm, and consisted of integrated nodules of bone, cartilage, and fat tissue. Microscopic examination confirmed lipoma with osteochondromatous metaplasia. The intense uptake in the lipoma near the bone or joint on the bone scan and multiple osteochondromatous nodules shown on CT may serve as characteristic features of the rare chondrosseous metaplasia within a lipoma.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1433-8726
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Overexpression of the nm23H1 gene has been associated with the suppression of metastasis in several solid tumors. However, in colorectal carcinoma and neuroblastoma, increased levels of nm23 H1 nucleoside diphosphate kinase A (NDPKA) mRNA are associated with tumorigenesis. To determine the role of nm23 H1/NDPKA in the prostate, normal and/or malignant tissue samples from 29 consecutive patients were studied. Levels of nm23 H1/NDPKA mRNA and nm23 H1/NDPKA mRNA protein were determined in tissue from 18 and 27 patients, respectively. In all, 16 of the 18 tumor samples expressed increased levels of nm23 H1/NDPKA mRNA as compared with those measured in normal tissue. The level of nm23 H1/NDPKA mRNA was 〉10-fold higher in a metastatic lymph node than in normal prostate tissue. All cancer specimens and areas of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia showed immunoreactivity with the nm23 H1/NDPKA antibody; however, normal prostatic tissue was unreactive. These findings suggest that overexpression of the nm23 H1/NDPKA gene occurs frequently in adenocarcinomas of the prostate and may be an early event in prostate cancer tumorigenesis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1434-3916
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A 61-year-old man with a slow-growing, painless mass in the area of the right knee underwent radiographic, computed tomographic (CT), arthrographic, arteriographic, and bone scintigraphic imaging studies. Scintigraphy showed an area of intense uptake in the anterolateral part of the knee; the uptake of the knee was much higher than that of the knee joints, but the area was not connected to the joint. Radiographic findings suggested an osteocartilaginous mass which was seen to contain low-density fatty tissue on the CT exam. Arthrography revealed that there was no connection of the mass to the knee joint. Arteriography showed a mildly vascularized tumor mass. Upon removal, the mass was well encapsulated, measuring 10 × 7 × 7 cm, and consisted of integrated nodules of bone, cartilage, and fat tissue. Microscopic examination confirmed lipoma with osteochondromatous metaplasia. The intense uptake in the lipoma near the bone or joint on the bone scan and multiple osteochondromatous nodules shown on CT may serve as characteristic features of the rare chondrosseous metaplasia within a lipoma.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    ISSN: 0022-3697
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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