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  • 1
    ISSN: 1467-8640
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Consider the construction of an expert system by encoding the knowledge of different experts. Suppose the knowledge provided by each expert is encoded into a knowledge base. Then the process of combining the knowledge of these different experts is an important and nontrivial problem. We study this problem here when the expert systems are considered to be first-order theories. We present techniques for resolving inconsistencies in such knowledge bases. We also provide algorithms for implementing these techniques.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-7470
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science , Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract On November 5, 1995, a special symposium on logic programming, non-monotonic reasoning and reasoning about actions, in honor of the 50th birthday of Professor Michael Gelfond, was held in El Paso, Texas. It was the first symposium of the El Paso Shell Oil Symposium series, jointly sponsored by the Shell Oil Company and by the University of Texas at El Paso. Overall, 16 talks were presented by researchers from the USA (New Mexico State University, Southern Methodist University, Stanford University, Syracuse University, University of Texas at Austin, and University of Texas at El Paso), Canada, and Finland. This issue contains the (peer-refereed) proceedings of this symposium. We are happy to present this collection to our readers, and we want to thank all those without whom this publication would not be possible: Shell Oil and the University of Texas at El Paso for generous support; the authors and all the participants of the symposium for their contributions; the referees for their tireless work; Martin Golumbic, the Editor-in-Chief of the Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence, for the opportunity to publish the proceedings as an issue of this journal; and, last but not the least, Michael Gelfond for being a wonderful person, a brilliant researcher, a good friend, and an inspiring teacher.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-7721
    Keywords: ER diagram ; multimedia database ; object relational data model ; modeling the WWW
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract In this paper, we discuss some design principles that will aid in the design and querying of multimedia databases. We use an object-relational data model and argue that multimedia objects should normally have a special attribute called ‘core’ which stores the real object itself in contrast to the abstraction which is reflected in the rest of the attributes. We present an extension to the ER Diagram that takes advantage of the ‘core’ notion to facilitate design of multimedia databases. We discuss some desirable features in a query language for multimedia databases: simplifications like the use of path expressions and implicit use of functions (methods) as attributes, and explicit specification of the display layout and format either at the data definition level or query specification level. To materialize this last feature, we propose a display specification extension to SQL (SQL+D) that we have implemented.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0670
    Keywords: Logic programming ; nonmonotonic reasoning
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract The Gelfond-Lifschitz operator associated with a logic program (and likewise the operator associated with default theories by Reiter) exhibits oscillating behavior. In the case of logic programs, there is always at least one finite, nonempty collection of Herbrand interpretations around which the Gelfond-Lifschitz operator ‘bounces around’. The same phenomenon occurs with default logic when Reiter's operator ГΔ is considered. Based on this, a ‘stable class’ semantics and ‘extension class’ semantics has been proposed. The main advantage of this semantics was that it was defined for all logic programs (and default theories), and that this definition was modelled using the standard operators existing in the literature such as Reiter's ГΔ operator. In this paper our primary aim is to prove that there is a very interestingduality between stable class theory and the well-founded semantics for logic programming. In the stable class semantics, classes that were minimal with respect to Smyth's power-domain ordering were selected. We show that the well-founded semantics precisely corresponds to a class that is minimal w.r.t. Hoare's power domain ordering: the well-known dual of Smyth's ordering. Besides this elegant duality, this immediately suggests how to define a well-founded semantics for default logic in such a way that the dualities that hold for logic programming continue to hold for default theories. We show how the same technique may be applied to ‘strong’ autoepistemic logic: the logic of strong expansions proposed by Marek and Truszczynski.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0670
    Keywords: Stable classes ; extension classes ; logic programs ; default logic
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract The stable model semantics (cf. Gelfond and Lifschitz [1]) for logic programs suffers from the problem that programs may not always have stable models. Likewise, default theories suffer from the problem that they do not always have extensions. In such cases, both these formalisms for non-monotonic reasoning have an inadequate semantics. In this paper, we propose a novel idea-that of extension classes for default logics, and of stable classes for logic programs. It is shown that the extension class and stable class semantics extend the extension and stable model semantics respectively. This allows us to reason about inconsistent default theories, and about logic programs with inconsistent completions. Our work extends the results of Marek and Truszczynski [2] relating logic programming and default logics.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-7470
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science , Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract In this paper we argue that logic programming theories of action allow us to identify subclasses for which the corresponding logic program has nice properties (such as acyclicity). As an example we extend the action description language $$\mathcal{A}$$ to allow executability conditions and show its formalization in logic programming. We show the relationship between the execution of partial order planners and the SLDNF tree with respect to the corresponding logic programs. In the end we briefly discuss how this relationship helps us in extending partial order planners to extended languages by following the corresponding logic program.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-7470
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science , Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract Generalized disjunctive well-founded semantics (GDWFS) is a refined form of the generalized well-founded semantics (GWFS) of Baral, Lobo and Minker, to disjunctive logic programs. We describe fixpoint, model theoretic and procedural characterizations of GDWFS and show their equivalence. The fixpoint semantics is similar to the fixpoint semantics of the GWFS, except that it iterates over state-pairs (a pair of sets; one a set of disjunctions of atoms and the other a pair of conjunctions of atoms), rather than partial interpretations. The model theoretic semantics is based on a dynamic stratification of the program. The procedural semantics is based on SLIS refutations, + trees and SLISNF trees.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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