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  • 1
    ISSN: 1619-6937
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Summary A wavefront analysis is employed to study the propagation of axial shear waves in an incompressible hyperelastic solid, whose strain energy function is expressible as a truncated power series in terms of the basic invariants of the left Cauchy-Green tensor. Waves are generated by the application of an axial shear stress at the surface of a cylindrical cavity in an unbounded medium. Depending on the nature of the boundary condition, an acceleration front or a shock front propagates from the boundary of the cavity. For an acceleration front, the coefficients in the wavefront expansion satisfy a sequence of transport equations which can be solved analytically. For a shock front, a wavefront analysis gives approximate formulas for the wave speed, shock front and intensity of the various field variables at the front. As well, our shock front analysis is used to devise a method of estimating the breaking distance of a shock front. In order to test the validity of the results of our wavefront analysis, numerical solutions are obtained for waves initiated by a step function or by a finite duration pulse at the boundary. Our numerical solutions are found by using a recently proposed relaxation scheme for systems of conservation laws.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Acta mechanica 23 (1975), S. 199-217 
    ISSN: 1619-6937
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Betrachtet wird die Wellenausbreitung in einem inhomogenen, viskoelastischen Stab veränderlichen Querschnittes, bei dem die verschiedenen Parameter nur von einer Koordinate abhängen. Verwendet wird eine Transformationsmethode, basierend auf der vonEason [1], um Bedingungen für diese Parameter anzugeben, so daß die Lösungen der Grundgleichungen in Form von konfluenten hypergeometrischen Funktionen gegeben sind. Einige spezielle Probleme werden diskutiert. Die formale asymptotische Methode von Karal-Keller wird dann verwendet und es wird gezeigt, daß sie zu Resultaten führt, die mit denen nach der Transformationsmethode übereinstimmen.
    Notes: Summary Wave propagation in an inhomogeneous hyperbolic-viscoelastic bar of variable cross section, when the various parameters of the solid depend on one space coordinate only, is considered. A transform technique, based on Eason's [1], is used to obtain conditions on these parameters which give solutions to the governing equation in terms of confluent hypergeometric functions and some particular problems are discussed. The formal Karal-Keller asymptotic technique is then introduced and shown to give results which are in agreement with those obtained by the transform technique.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Acta mechanica 27 (1977), S. 103-120 
    ISSN: 1619-6937
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die durch Stoß hervorgerufenen Störungen ausgehend von einem zylindrischen Hohlraum in orthotropen, zylindrisch anisotropen, inhomogenen elastischen Materialien werden untersucht. Mittels einer Transformationsmethode werden Bedingungen für die verschiedenen Parameter des Mediums bestimmt, die, wenn sie erfüllt sind, die Lösungen für das Stoßproblem in Termen modifizierter Bessel-Funktionen auszudrücken ermöglichen. Damit erhält man asymptotische Wellenfrontentwicklungen und exakte, geschlossene Lösungen. Eine formale Methode zur direkten Bestimmung solcher Entwicklungen wird zur Lösung einer Vielzahl von Problemen verwendet. Ein Vergleich der Ergebnisse der zwei Methoden ist angegeben und im Anhang ist ein genauer Beweis des Hauptterms in der formalen Entwicklung enthalten.
    Notes: Summary Here we study impact-initiated disturbances propagating from a cylindrical cavity in orthotropic cylindrically anisotropic inhomogeneous elastic materials. Employing a transform technique we ascertain conditions on the various parameters of the medium which, when satisfied, enable us to express the solutions for impact problems in terms of modified Bessel functions. From these we generate asymptotic wavefront expansions and exact closed-form solutions. A formal technique for directly generating such expansions is also employed to solve a variety of problems. Comparisons of results obtained by the two methods are included and an appendix contains a rigorous verification of the leading term in the formal expansion.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1619-6937
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Summary Employing a previously established theory for wave propagation in liquid-filled distensible tubes [1] we analyse the propagation and subsequent reflection of a transient pulse from the distal end of a finite length tube. Conditions pertaining to pulse generation at the proximal end of the tube are specified so as to approximate the conditions of experiments carried out on water-filled latex tubes [1]. Laplace transforms are employed and numerical results presented graphically.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1619-6937
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Summary A theory of wave propagation in liquid filled distensible tubes, which extends the region of validity of the linear long wavelength theory commonly employed in haemodynamics, is presented and tested against experiments on water filled latex tubes. The theory which is linear and involves but a single free parameter provides excellent agreement with the impulse experiments.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1619-6937
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Summary In a previous paper the present authors developed a model describing wave propagation in liquid filled distensible tubes and tested it against impulse experiments involving water filled latex rubber tubes. This model incorporates both dissipative and dispersive mechanism which are absent from the commonly employed linear long wave-length (LLW) theory of haemodynamics. This higher order theory is here employed to study propagation of an impulse in a semi infinite tube, reflection of an impulse from the distal end of a finite length tube, and reflection and transmission of impulses impinging on a function connecting dissimilar liquid filled tubes. Both open and closed type reflections are treated and numerical results presented graphically. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that such a higher order theory has been employed to treat reflection and transmission of waves in tube systems.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1619-6937
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Summary Herein we develop a linear one-dimensional model for impulse propagation in fluidfilled tubes. Area changes are related to pressure changes by means of convolution integrals of the creep or relaxation function for the tube wall material. The model is employed to study the propagation of pressure and flow pulses along initially uniform tubes and their subsequent interaction with various junctions characteristic of the arterial system.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Primates 32 (1991), S. 307-320 
    ISSN: 0032-8332
    Keywords: Vocalizations ; Visually recognizable ; Signals ; Squirrel monkeys ; Behavior sequences
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Visually recognizable social signals and structural call components, which had been demonstrated to be of social relevance within their own communication channel in previous experiments (disregarding or experimentally excluding other ones), were treated together, and their inter-dependencies analyzed when they were performed simultaneously in spontaneous behavior sequences of pairs of adult squirrel monkeys. It was found that: (1) all call classes were uttered within periods when either genital display or “triumph gesture” were shown; (2) production rates of particular vocal classes significantly deviated from no-display periods; (3) degree and direction of deviations (more/less frequent) were quite specific for both vocal and nonvocal classes (Figs. 1a & 1b); (4) differences depended also on which animal actually displayed (the vocalizing one, the other one, or both; Fig. 3); and (5) differences found for single animals when they played different roles in the experimental situation were smaller than those found between individuals, which could be related to dominance status (Table 2). The possibility of mutual modification of signals of different modalities and perspectives for future work are discussed.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-8752
    Keywords: Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy ; bite tray stability ; frameless
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The development of fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) has been hampered by slow and cumbersome relocation techniques. The Medtronic Sofamor Danek (MSD) frameless system is promoted as a fast, relocatable system. It relies upon the integrity of a bite tray system that is molded to the patient's upper dentition. Precise relocation of the bite tray is the key to accurate external placement of the fiducial reference frame. The optimum construction method for a stable reproducible tray is not described. We undertook a study to identify factors, which might influence the integrity of the bite tray system. Reprosil Fast Set Putty was used to construct three bite tray conditions to include: teeth only, teeth and alveolar sulcus, and teeth, alveolar sulcus, and the hard palate. The influence of dentition was also assessed: full dentition, partial dentition, and edentulous. Stability of the bite tray system was tested by assessing minimum displacement forces from known locations around a centrally placed maxilla jig. Dentition is important to stability, with progressively less displacement forces required for partial and edentulous conditions. Extension of the surface area of the bite tray to include teeth, gums, and also hard palate substantially increased stability across all dental conditions. Impression techniques that incorporate the teeth, alveolar sulcus, and the hard palate, result in significantly increased stability and are recommended to ensure maximal resistance to deviation.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1619-6937
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Summary Diagrams of the developing isochromatic curve patterns associated with the dynamic stress field arising when a circular cavity is subjected to a spatially nonuniform dynamic load are computed. These diagrams show for the first time the detailed wave fronts and zones of stress for this technically interesting problem. Since isochromatic lines correspond to the fringe patterns of photoelasticity, the results presented here suggest the possibility of direct experimental confirmation of the theory upon which the computations are based.
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