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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract The degradation of recalcitrant pollutants in contaminated soils and waters could be facilitated by broadening the degradative capabilities of indigenous microbes by the conjugal transfer of catabolic genes. The feasibility of establishing bacterial populations that degrade phenoxyacetic acid by conjugal transfer of tfdA, the gene encoding 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid/2-oxoglutarate dioxygenase, to phenol-degrading strains of Pseudomonas and Ralstonia was examined. The mobilizable plasmid pKJS32 served as a vector for delivery of tfdA and the regulatory gene, tfdS. Transconjugant strains that degraded phenol by an ortho cleavage of catechol grew well on phenoxyacetic acid while those employing a meta cleavage could only grow on phenoxyacetic acid in the presence of benzoic acid or after a prolonged lag period and the appearance of mutants that had gained catechol 1,2-dioxygenase activities. Thus, an ortho cleavage of catechol was essential for degradation of phenoxyacetic acid, suggesting that a product of the ortho-cleavage pathway, probably cis,cis-muconic acid, is an inducer of tfdA gene expression. Establishment of phenoxyacetic-acid-degrading soil populations by conjugal transfer of tfdA would depend on the presence of phenol-degrading recipients employ- ing an ortho cleavage of catechol.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1574-6941
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Estuarine microcosms were used to follow conjugal transfer of a broad host range IncP1 plasmid from a Pseudomonas putida donor to indigenous bacteria. Donor cells were added at a concentration similar to the natural abundance of bacteria in the water column (106 cells ml−1). Transfer was not detected in any of the test microcosms (calculated limit of detection of 10−7 and 10−4 transconjugants donor−1 in water column and sediment, respectively), with the exception of transfer to an isogenic recipient (added at 105 cells ml−1) in sediments of controls that had been inoculated with both donors and recipients. The same plasmid was transferred with high efficiencies (10−1 to 10−3) to a variety of recipients in filter and broth matings. These results suggest that if conjugal gene transfer occurred, it was at efficiencies that were not detectable in estuarine microcosms simulating natural population densities.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1476-5535
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-184X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Bacterial transformation of mercury in the environment has received much attention owing to the toxicity of both the ionic form and organomercurial compounds. Bacterial resistance to mercury and the role of bacteria in mercury cycling have been widely studied. The genes specifying the required functions for resistance to mercury are organized on the mer operon. Gene probing methodologies have been used for several years to detect specific gene sequences in the environment that are homologous to cloned mer genes. While mer genes have been detected in a wide variety of environments, less is known about the expression of these genes under environmental conditions. We combined new methodologies for recovering specific gene mRNA transcripts and mercury detection with a previously described method for determining biological potential for mercury volatilization to examine the effect of mercury concentrations and nutrient availability on rates of mercury volatilization and merA transcription. Levels of merA-specific transcripts and Hg(II) volatilization were influenced more by microbial activity (as manipulated by nutrient additions) than by the concentration of total mercury. The detection of merA-specific transcripts in some samples that did not reduce Hg(II) suggests that rates of mercury volatilization in the environment may not always be proportional to merA transcription.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Microbial ecology 32 (1996), S. 293-303 
    ISSN: 1432-184X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract. Bacterial transformation of mercury in the environment has received much attention owing to the toxicity of both the ionic form and organomercurial compounds. Bacterial resistance to mercury and the role of bacteria in mercury cycling have been widely studied. The genes specifying the required functions for resistance to mercury are organized on the mer operon. Gene probing methodologies have been used for several years to detect specific gene sequences in the environment that are homologous to cloned mer genes. While mer genes have been detected in a wide variety of environments, less is known about the expression of these genes under environmental conditions. We combined new methodologies for recovering specific gene mRNA transcripts and mercury detection with a previously described method for determining biological potential for mercury volatilization to examine the effect of mercury concentrations and nutrient availability on rates of mercury volatilization and merA transcription. Levels of merA-specific transcripts and Hg(II) volatilization were influenced more by microbial activity (as manipulated by nutrient additions) than by the concentration of total mercury. The detection of merA-specific transcripts in some samples that did not reduce Hg(II) suggests that rates of mercury volatilization in the environment may not always be proportional to merA transcription.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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