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  • 1
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  52. Kongress für Allgemeinmedizin und Familienmedizin; 20180913-20180915; Innsbruck, Österreich; DOC18degam178 /20180910/
    Publication Date: 2018-09-11
    Keywords: Prävention ; psychosoziale Probleme ; Suizidalität ; ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1433-8491
    Keywords: Somatosensory stimulation ; SPECT ; Schizophrenia ; Major Depression ; Hypofrontality ; Right inferior parietal lobe
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Six depressed patients with schizophrenia and 6 depressed patients with major depression were investigated before and during somatosensory stimulation (SS) with Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT. 8 controls were investigated only under resting conditions. The results can be summarized as follows: 1. Both psychiatric patient groups were hypofrontal (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) compared to controls. 2. Hypofrontality was further enhanced by SS, significantly only in affective psychoses in the right inferior frontal lobe and in the right frontal hemisphere in total, in schizophrenia in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. 3. Within the frontal lobes different regions were affected by SS in the two diagnostic groups. 4. In the right inferior parietal lobe SS response was significantly different in the two illnesses with schizophrenia showing a relative decrease, affective psychoses showing a relative increase of activity. 5. SS produced an increase of cerebral blood flow in subcortical regions (statistically significant contralateral to SS in thalamus and basal ganglia, ipsilateral to SS in cerebellum), a pattern which was common to all psychiatric patients. 6. Somatosensory cortex flow was not changed by SS. In conclusion, we could not fully confirm our hypotheses that similar blood flow abnormalities in different illnesses during SS are only caused by similarities in depressive psychopathology. Instead, depressed patients with schizophrenia were different from depressed patients with major depression in showing decreased activity in interrelating brain regions participating in an attentional network.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1369-1600
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Based on the hypothesis that β-carbolines are involved in the pathogenesis of alcohol-related mood disturbance, harman and norharman levels were assayed in the blood plasma of alcoholics and correlated to the Hamilton Depression (HAM-D) scores after 3 and 5 weeks post-admission. Tobacco smoking was co-evaluated since it is known to influence β-carboline levels. After a 3-week period, plasma harman but not norharman was increased in depressed alcoholics and positively related to the HAM-D sum-score (r = 0.47; p 〈 0.04) and to tobacco smoking (r = 0.56; p 〈 0.02). Since no correlation between depression and smoking was found, these data could account for the higher incidence of depressive symptoms in withdrawn alcoholics with increased harman levels. The partial correlations support this hypothesis.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Acta neurochirurgica 132 (1995), S. 169-177 
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1459
    Keywords: Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis ; Remitting course ; Antibody titers ; Uncommon features of SSPE
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die SSPE ist durch folgende diagnostische Kriterien charakterisiert: bestimmte klinische Erscheinungen einschließlich progredienter psychopathologischer Symptome bis zum finalen Koma, Myoklonien und andere extrapyramidale Bewegungsstörungen, erhöhte Immunglobulin-G-Fraktion im Liquor, stark erhöhte Masernantikörpertiter im Serum und Liquor sowie typische periodische (alle 5–7 Sec) K-Komplexe im EEG. Die Krankheit tritt in der Kindheit auf und nimmt in der Regel einen tödlichen Verlauf. Wiederholt sind Krankheitsfälle mit Abweichungen vom typischen Verlauf oder mit atypischen Befunden beschrieben worden. Der hier dargestellte Fall weist folgende ungewöhnliche Merkmale auf: später Beginn, partielle Remission und Stillstand im Verlauf, verhältnismäßig wenig stark erhöhte Masernantikörpertiter im Vergleich mit den meisten SSPE-Fällen, dissoziiertes Verhalten der cytoplasmatischen und nukleären Fluoreszenzantikörper gegen Hirngewebe von SSPE-Kranken und initial erhöhte Antikörper gegen Rötelnvirus. Die Patientin wurde mit Isoprinosine behandelt. Die klinische Besserung was bereits vor Therapiebeginn zu erkennen, doch wurde während der Behandlung eine weitere Remission und Stabilisierung beobachtet.
    Notes: Summary SSPE is characterised by progressive mental deterioration, myoclonic and similar motor disorders and final severe comatose states, increase of immunoglobuline G in the CSF, strongly elevated antibody titers to measles virus in serum and CSF and typical periodic K-complexes in the EEG. The disease appears commonly in childhood and has a fatal course. Cases with atypical signs have occasionally been reported. The case described in this paper shows a number of uncommon features: late onset, partial remission and stationary course, increased antibody titers to measles virus but relatively low in comparison to others, dissociation of cytoplasmic and nuclear fluorescent antibodies against SSPE brain tissue and an initial increase of antibodies against rubella virus. The patient was treated with isoprinosine. Improvement was observed before the start of this therapy and stabilized while treatment was being continued.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1246
    Keywords: Neurotoxicity ; Organic solvents ; Spray painters
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A multidisciplinary cross-sectional study was performed to examine the chronic neurotoxicity of organic solvents. Participating in the study were 105 persons employed as spray painters and having long-term solvent exposure (10–44 years) and a control group consisting of 58 construction workers, electricians, and plumbers without occupational contact to solvents. Samples were matched for age, preexposure intelligence level, occupation, and socioeconomic status. After controlling for potentially non occupational confounding factors (neuropsychiatric diseases, metabolic disorders, high blood pressure, alcohol intake) 83 spray painters and 42 controls were entered finally into the study. The evaluation included work history, self-rating questionnaire, neurologic investigation, psychiatric analysis using the Present State Examination (PSE), psychological testing, and computerized axial tomography (CAT) of the brain. Physical and neurologic examinations demonstrated no case of overt disorders of the central or peripheral nervous system. An important result of the psychiatric analysis was that the syndromes “special features of depression” and “loss of interest and concentration” occurred significantly more frequently among spray painters than among controls. Further analyses demonstrated an association with chronic exposure over 30 years and repeated acute neurotoxic effects during solvent exposures. Neither psychological nor performance tests demonstrated any statistically significant differences in the performance sets after adjustment according to premorbid intelligence level; this finding supports the presumption of only a low grade of mental dysfunction. Correlation analyses indicated a relationship between subjective health complaints and long-term solvent exposure; however, the effect of age cannot be completely ruled out. Visual evaluation of CAT scans of the brain demonstrated significantly higher values for spray painters on the Cella media index, a measure of the inner liquor system of the brain. None of the other CAT parameters of inner or external brain atrophy showed significant differences. The rate of diffuse cerebral atrophy was not increased in spray painters. No statistical relationship between the solvent exposure index and CAT parameters was found by correlation analysis. In summary, the results do not support the hypothesis of an increased risk of solvent-induced encephalopathy among spray painters. It is not possible to establish a typical picture of central nervous system dysfunction due to chronic solvent exposure. Differences in the frequency of PSE symptoms “special features of depression” and “loss of interest and concentration” could be considered solvent related only if long-term (on average 30-year) exposure in combination with repeated acute neurotic effects had occurred. Cerebral atrophy beyond that of normal aging was not found in long-term exposed spray painters.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0165-1781
    Keywords: Catecholamines ; cortisol ; depression ; dexamethasone
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Key words Magnetoencephalography ; Spontaneous activity ; Dipole ; Clozapine ; Haloperidol
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Rationale: The atypical neuroleptic clozapine induces specific electroencephalogram changes, which have not been investigated using the technique of magnetoencephalography (MEG). Objective: The present study investigated whether spontaneous magnetoencephalographic (MEG) activity in patients treated with clozapine differs from that in patients treated with haloperidol and untreated control subjects. Methods: A 2 × 37 channel biomagnetic system was used to record spontaneous magnetic activity for the frequency ranges (2–6 Hz), (7.5–12 Hz), (12.5–30 Hz) in schizophrenic patients and controls in two trials within 3 weeks. After data acquisition, the processed data were digitally filtered and the spatial distribution of dipoles was determined by a 3-D convolution with a Gaussian envelope. The dipole localisation was calculated by the dipole density plot and the principal component analysis. The target parameters were absolute dipole values and the dipole localisations. The relationship between absolute dipole values, dipole localisations and psychopathological findings (documented by the use of the PANSS, BPRS-scale) during a 3 week period with constant doses of clozapine and haloperidol was investigated using correlation analysis. Results: Our results lend strong support to the assumption of a significant elevation of absolute dipole values [dipole density maximum (Dmax), dipole number (Dtotal), absolute and relative dipole density] in the fast frequency range (12.5–30 Hz) over the left hemisphere, especially in the temporoparietal region by clozapine. In this area, we found a dipole concentration effect only in patients treated with the atypical neuroleptic, whereas the dipole distribution in patients treated with haloperidol and healthy controls was concentrated in the central region. With regard to the absolute dipole values in the frequency ranges 2–6 Hz (δ, θ) and 7.5–12 Hz (α), we found no statistically significant differences between the groups investigated. In the slow frequency range (2–6 Hz) no difference was found between the clozapine and haloperidol group for the dipole localisation, which predominated in the temporoparietal region, in contrast to the central dipole distribution in control subjects. Conclusions: The results of an increase in beta activity under clozapine demonstrate a smaller reduction in activity in terms of unspecific sensory and motor paradigms in comparison with typical neuroleptics. The temporoparietal concentration of dipoles, in particular over the left half of the brain, might illustrate either their special role in the disease process, or the effects of the medication. The latter possibility was supported by the differing dipole distribution in the clozapine group with a left temporoparietal centre in both frequency ranges, and a deviating central dipole localisation in the fast activity range in the haloperidol group.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Key words Nicotine ; Stereoisomers ; Sensory ; Trigeminal ; Olfaction ; Pain
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Rationale: Nicotine applied to the nasal cavity can evoke ‘odorous’ sensations in the concentration range near the detection threshold by the activation of the olfactory sensory system and at higher concentrations ‘burning’ and ‘stinging’ sensations by the dose-dependent recruitment of C- and Aδ-fibers of the trigeminal sensory system. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAchR) subunits are expressed in trigeminal primary afferents and could constitute the receptors involved in nicotine perception. Objective: In the present study, we dose-dependently investigated the stereoselective effects of R(+)- and S(−)-nicotine on the trigeminal and olfactory sensory system in man. Methods: Trigeminal detection thresholds for the ‘burning’ and ‘stinging’ sensations and the olfactory detection threshold for the ‘odorous’ sensation were determined. In order to quantify trigeminal activation, we recorded summated electrical responses from the respiratory nasal mucosa during stimulation with R(+)- and S(−)-nicotine vapor (40, 80, 120, 160 ng/ml; stimulus duration: 250 ms). In addition, subjects rated the intensity of ‘odorous’, ‘burning’ and ‘stinging’ sensations. For chemical stimulation with nicotine enantiomers, a vapor-dilution olfactometer (constant flow rate: 140 ml/s, humidity: 80%, temperature: 37°C, stimulus duration 250 ms) was employed. Results: We found significant stereoselective differences for the trigeminal but not for the olfactory system, i.e. higher summated responses, higher trigeminal intensity estimates, and lower trigeminal detection thresholds for S(−)- compared to R(+)-nicotine. Conclusion: Our results clearly demonstrate the different stereoselective activation of the trigeminal sensory system by R(+)- and S(−)-nicotine, indicating the presence of specific stereoselective receptors on trigeminal nociceptive Aδ- and C-fibers.
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